With the construction of the railway to Manchuria by the Russian government in 1900, the mission began to expand its educational influence. In 1903, the Annunciation Church was built in Harbin, which on February 10, 1918 burned to the ground, only the icon of the Annunciation of the Most Holy Theotokos was miraculously preserved. The burned down church was restored and in 1919 it was consecrated by the now deceased Metropolitan Innokenty. In 1920, the bishop, then the archbishop of the Trans-Baikal, now Harbin and Manchurian Meletius, was appointed head of the Annunciation metochion of the Beijing Spiritual Mission.
On August 29, 1929, the council of the circle of zealots of church splendor at this church receives a blessing for the construction of a new stone church.
On July 7, 1930, the plan of the new temple was approved by the Harbin City Government, on September 14 of the same year, the foundation ceremony took place in the presence of numerous Harbin residents. The rite of the founding of the temple was performed by Archbishop Meletius, in collaboration with the missionary and city clergy.
The project of the temple, drawn up by engineer B.M. Tustanovsky, makes an excellent impression. The temple will have a side-chapel in the name of St. Sergius of Radonezh the Wonderworker.
The difficult financial situation of Russian immigration in Harbin and the world depression will, of course, adversely affect the construction of the temple, but the Construction Committee, realizing the sacredness of the work, trusts in the mercy of God, the protection of the Most Holy Theotokos and the prayerful intercession of the great ruler of the Russian land, St. Sergius, and believes that although after a long time the majestic temple will adorn the modest abode of the Beijing Mission.
Donations and sums of money for the construction of the temple are accepted in the Annunciation Metochion of the Beijing Spiritual Mission on Police Street by Archbishop Meletius and the treasurer of the construction committee, Hegumen Joseph.