Русский | | Shatalov, O.V., 2000
English Machine Translation

from archive of A. S. Ipatova

O.V. Shatalov
The candidate of historical sciences, the Voronezh state university


The portrait is stored In archival assembly of the St.-Petersburg branch of Institute of oriental studies of the Russian Academy of Science gray-haired startsa, oblachennogo in church clothes, with an acute sight of the light blue eyes which many have seen on the century. Domestic sinologam the name of this person which diligence had been incorporated bases of the richest sinologicheskih collections of our country is well familiar and opportunities for long-term and stable stay of the Russian orthodox mission in Beijing in XIX century Its name - Paul Ivanovich Kamensky, with acceptance monastic postriga named by Peter are created. Mentions of it are frequent in the special research literature, in particular when speech comes about profile eaoaeiaao1. 

Even more often about it speak in connection with uneasy collisions so-called " business of father Iakinfa " (N.J.Bichurina) 2. However and to this day circumstances of a life of this scientist, the pastor and the missionary, its contribution to becoming and development of domestic oriental studies are not to the full revealed and opened by our scientists.

We Shall begin even that V.P.Vasilev, speaking about works Kamenskogo which plenty after its death remains in manuscripts and a site them to establish inconveniently, has as follows responded about their author: " all the dear old man, irreproachable, but short-sighted " 3.

Authors (among which and rather dear) a different sort of film scripts and novels on a historical theme with careless ease represent archimandrite Peter in an inattractive image of the born and inveterate tale-bearer, the suppressor of all progressive and advanced, embodied, on logic of their thinking, quite naturally and naturally in a figure ieromonaha Eaeeioa4.

E.I.Kychanov who absolutely fairly has noted in due time has paid attention To a phenomenon of archimandrite Peter: " Behind all scientific activity Kamenskogo or there is an adverse coincidence of circumstances, or any secret is covered. There was a myth, that it knew the Chinese language insufficiently. But it is a myth, and not only because Kamensky, as anybody, long veins in China but also because it has left the Russian-Chinese dictionary and phrase books in the scientific heritage. P.I.Kamenskogo's mission has prepared the biggest number of the pupils capable after returning from China to practical work with languages " 5. The Same researcher has managed partly to distinguish in this phenomenon and its drama party in which doubtless one seems to it, namely, that " being contemporary N.J.Bichurina, it has come back ? from China when Bichurin has already triumphally entered not only into Russian science, but also in world sinologiju. Bichurin has to a certain extent covered Kamenskogo, as well as two other contemporaries - S.V.Lipovtsova and Z.F.Leontyevsky... " 6.

Organizing abilities Kamenskogo specified ieromonah Gury (Carps), worked in structure of the twelfth spiritual mission (1840-1849): " Mission did not bring expected advantage till Alexander Blagoslovennogo's times (t. e. Alexander I. - About.) can be because the staff was insufficient, and can be and consequently, whether that in members of mission has raspolozhennost, ability to linguistics, whether even is capable of something: it selected and sent to China because no corrective measures popechitelnogo the heads operated! Alexander Blagoslovennyj, on representation of the father of archimandrite Peter, has increased staff, having specified students and spiritual to select by all means in Petersburg and from higher educational institutions with the certificate on excellent morals and abilities " 7.

It is difficult to disagree With the above-stated judgement. On X mission special hopes as disagreement and contentions between members of previous mission of archimandrite Iakinfa have made problematic the further existence of Orthodoxy within the limits of Median empire have been assigned. In this connection sharply there was a question on structure of mission and its chief. Not casually in one of the letters then Minister for Foreign Affairs of columns of K.V.nesselrode wrote to minister of spiritual affairs and national education to prince 

A.N.Golitsyn: " Essential inconvenience consist that the choice on the people having full hunting to those and abilities and uniting strict morals with toju a degree of scientific education which would open it ways to the perfect achievement of the purpose of high purpose of mission " not always fell. But in fact such people " can justify really will of the government, and give Chineses the present concept about a degree of formation, about advantage of character of Russians " 8.

And in the Highest instruction addressed to archimandrite Peter, signed in Tsarskoe Selo on July, 27th, 1818, it was spoken: " the Government, selecting you the main chief of spiritual mission sent to Beijing, wishes, that you have accepted this purpose as a new sign on the excellent power of attorney and respect for your pure Christian rules, strict morals, abilities and education. It expects with tverdoju nadezhdoju, that you quite will justify its choice, and in opinion of people sosedstvennogo support honour of a name of Russian as cautious and mild your behaviour, both examples of a life virtuous, and close impartial supervision of all members of new mission, to you subordinated " 9.

The Choice of the government was as it is impossible for more successful. Archimandrite Peter has appeared that person who managed to revive and put on essentially new basis activity of the Russian orthodox mission in China. And if the first 20 years of XIX century in domestic sinologii can be named " bichurinskim a stage " since 1821 on 1917 inclusive in activity of mission proceeds " period Kamenskogo " as the missionary activity which has received a high estimation of this period was vzlelejana its works and cares. In this connection pertinently to give of a word known Russian sinologa XIX century K.A. Skachkova which wrote about archimandrite Peter, that " during ten years' stay in Beijing, <it> did not cease to care together with the assistants of suggestion disappeared from Orthodoxy of trues of belief Hristovoj and measures of mildness, blessings, a kind example, diligence in svjashchennosluzhenii and in execution spiritual treb has involved in our temples the most part of those Albazintsev, lived in Beijing, which families already more than centuries kosneli in idolatry " 10.

We Shall stop shortly on the basic marks of the biography of archimandrite Peter, preceded its sending to Beijing in 1819 Was born in 1765 in family nayuaiieea11. In 1787 has ended a theological seminary in Nizhni Novgorod, where was trained in latin and ancient greek languages (knew them in perfection), poetry, rhetoric, philosophy, divinity, geography and mathematics. Then within three years worked as the teacher in Balahninskom district school. In 1791 has acted in Imperial Moscow university in which studied logic, mathematics, general history and the natural right. Later year has been certain by the assistant to the supervisor in the St.-Petersburg educational house. In February, 1793 under the decree of the Most holy Pravitelstvujushchego the Synod has been included in structure of VIII Russian orthodox mission of archimandrite Sofronija (Gribovskogo) as the pupil of the Chinese and Manchurian languages. Being in Beijing, besides work in Lifanjuane (the Chinese Board of foreign affairs), actively was engaged in translational activity (basically from Manchurian language). To them have been translated (in some cases there are begun translations and are completed already later): " TSzychzhi tuntszjan ganmu " (dominsky the period), section "Bentszi" from "JUanshi", " Magazine, vedennyj in Beijing on the occasion of arrival from the Russian state of envoy Nikolay Gavrilovicha Spafarija ", " the Description of affairs of Dzungaria ", " Falling Minsk, and beginning Manzhurskoj, in China imperial dynasties, or a life of traitor Lidzychina " and some other ?aaiou12.

During this period of the stay in Beijing P.I.Kamensky has born impression that " Beijing for scientific missionaries is fine school, paradise, and for ignoramuses muchitelnejshaja bondage " 13. 

The Significant place in scientific heritage Kamenskogo of this period is allocated to reviewing sinologicheskoj production of domestic and foreign researchers. Are especially interesting its note, devoted to works of known French missionary-jesuit Z.M.Amyo (1718-1793.) " Chinese jesuit Amiota of a note, - it is readable in one of its responses, - an essence a body which is not having and attributes showers - at all eminence of its learning, tolikie works on istinne not only an essence are vain, but also harmful. It... Did not explain, but that already, so to say, in scientific light, almost and has explained, on extreme without sovestiju absolutely to black out tried. It wrote under a name kitajtsov, from their bosom left, takija fables about which and China at all antiquity, never heard. Ezhestrochnyja pustyja its contradictions, are strong to prove this istinnu " 14.

P.I.Kamenskogo's Knowledge of the Chinese and Manchurian languages, as well as other pupils of mission, at returning to Russia have been highly certified urginskim vanom which had with them conversation specially on this i?aaiao15. Then Irkutsk general-governor I.B.Pestel assumed to leave it the translator in the department. However the central government, lacking the qualified translators, has defined it together with S.V.Lipovtsovym on April, 13th, 1809 in staff of officials of the Asian department of Board of foreign affairs. In 1816 it is made in a grade collegiate asessora and erected in nobiliary advantage. Then P.I.Kamensky's by the Highest nominal decree has been certain in structure popechitelnogo committee of the Imperial philanthropic society and as its member was trustee Galernogo of settlement. In 1818 has been selected on a post of director of committee of the Russian Bible society.

Being on civil service, P.I.Kamensky continued to be engaged in scientific activity actively. The big international resonance was received with its idea connected with attempts of the edition pjatijazychnogo (iaiu??o?nei-iiiaieunei-eeoaenei-Russian-latin) dictionary, the proof of which first sheets has been let out in N.Grecha's printing house. Despite of stated and to this day doubts in the done P.I.Kamenskim's reality of practical work above drawing up of the such dictionary, archival materials available in our disposal allow to approve, that by the moment of sending to China it has thoroughly worked at the conceived edition though has not had time to finish this grandiose work up to eiioa16. The given circumstance specify also the numerous reviews which have acted from abroad from the largest orientalists of the Western Europe (Dzh. Barrow, l. Deginja

?.-i. . Remjuza, baron a. . Silvestra de Sasi, C.Uilkinsa, etc.). From domestic sinologov N.J.Bichurin has responded, and is negative. Greater help in attempts of the edition of the dictionary of P.I.Kamenskomu P.L.shilling rendered background Kanshtadt which has managed specially for this purpose to obtain necessary monetary n?aanoaa17.

Approximately in the same years of scientists-neiieiaii translation of the book "Tajshan" which incomplete text has been published in " Magazine of the ministry of national education " for 1821 a.18 In parallel it has been carried out taught in the St.-Petersburg spiritual academy where read a rate on modern history of China.

Evident display of a recognition of merits of P.I.Kamenskogo in scientific sphere was its election in 1819 member-correspondent of the St.-Petersburg Imperial academy of sciences under the category of the literature and antiquities of the East. It also was a member of the Free economic society, the Free society of fans of a science and applied arts, the Parisian Asian society and the Copenhagen society northern antikvariev.

P.I.Kamensky was the author of the project of that instruction (with small additions Irkutsk general-governor N.I.Treskina) which became a basis of activity of the Russian orthodox mission in China. The main things among its items were the following: care of preservation and augmentation of orthodox flock in China, correct statement of educational employment and gathering of materials by all without exception by members of mission on interesting Russian society and the government to branches of knowledge, " preservation in mission of the excellent order so dear in China ", accordingly through it " sniskanie blagoraspolozhenija commanding grades and authorized representatives " China-neiai the governments.

Most likely the given circumstance testifying to very deep and all-round knowledge of business, and also personal qualities of the composer of the instruction have allowed an occasion to its direct heads to offer P.I.Kamenskomu to head new mission. However from this abuse it has refused, having written to the official report addressed to K.V.nesselrode, that " the Beijing service, rather to personal and private kinds, is equaled with sluzhboju in bowels of fatherland continued, as long and not changeable suffering, with long uslazhdeniem lives. Any way to select the worst, it is opposite to the nature, that is why and to go there I am denied " 19.

Now it is difficult to explain those valid reasons, on which P.I.Kamensky has refused to accept this high purpose, as well as the circumstances which finally have induced it to change the initial decision. Hardly they were especially material order on what some of its biographers insist. But anyway, the choice took place in favour of repeated, very uneasy and rather long service in China.

Considering, that the chief of mission the person of a ministry should be indispensable, Paul Kamensky has selected a nunhood (to it promoted as well that it was single), and postrig with a name Peter from metropolitan St.-Petersburg Michael on May, 3rd, 1819 has accepted. On May, 8th has been imposed in ierodiakona, then - ieromonaha, and on May, 15th it is made in archimandrite. Then to it has been welcome diamond napersnyj a cross.

Before departure of mission its members have received the Highest audience. During reception archimandrite Peter has told, that will ask on a feat of the help prelaying to it from the Lord. On what Sovereign Alexander Pavlovich replied psalomski: " my Voice to the Lord vozzvah, and uslysha mja from mountain svjatyja Svoeja " also has added: " it is frequent so I appealed to the Lord, and That always listened to me " 20.

Members of mission have left St.-Petersburg on December, 28th, 1819, and the part from them has gone to say goodbye with native. All together they have gathered already in Kazan and have arrived to Irkutsk on February, 20th, 1820 where have been warmly and kindly met then the general-governor of Siberia M.M.Speransky. On August, 31st, 1820 mission has crossed border of Russian empire, and on December, 1st the same year has arrived to the Chinese capital. In a way mission was accompanied the official with 8 classes of the Asian department of Ministry for Foreign Affairs E.F. Timkovsky as its police officer and group of the Siberian cossacks from 29 person led by the officer E.I.Razgildeevym's 14 classes. In the order of mission 10 covered vehicles, 6 odnokolok have been given, 85 camels, 150 horses and 28 bulls, the part from which has been presented missions ao?yoaie21.

Extremely successful there was a selection of participants of mission. Into it have entered: ieromonah Veniamin (Morachevich), ieromonah Daniel (Sivillov), prichetniki 

N.I.Voznesensky and A.I.Sosnitsky, doctor I.P.Voitsekhovsky, students 

K.G.Crimean and Z.F.Leontyevsky. Exception was represented only by two: ierodiakon Israel which, being is deprived, most likely, those qualities of unselfishness and self-sacrifice which archimandrite to the full possessed, student V.K.Abramovich has received the extremely unflattering estimation of the chief, and. However, soon both of them have returned to Russia.

It is interesting to note, that in studying of the Chinese and Manchurian languages in this mission were engaged even prichetniki that done not happen earlier. In activity of previous missions they showed the main source of anxieties and contentions. " I mnogogreshnejshy the novice, - wrote in the report to the Most holy Synod on April, 3rd, 1833 archimandrite Peter, - to correct this harm, have turned them to works of studying mnogotrudnejshego the Chinese language, chrez that Mission has got rid of them temptations, Christian morals and physical health was preserved, and the Chinese government bad behaviour, beznuzhnymi by dispatches has not been concerned. A word: from such people who and perished, and others to death always carried away, I have returned to Fatherland on true useful " 22.

From the first steps of activity of new Russian orthodox mission there was a problem of mutual relations with members of the previous mission connected with trial of its affairs, rather started on church and administrative part. It is enough to mention, that for 15 years of work of IX mission 23 persons have been turned into Orthodoxy only. The responsibility for contentions and disorder of mission Kamensky has completely assigned to archimandrite Iakinfa (Bichurina) about which wrote: " Archimandrite Iakinf of sharp mind, to much on true is capable, but kind propensities, and even it seems shame and conscience, a trace it is not visible. For it belief, fatherland, relationship, a duty near, a life, death - mere words, for it one slado-no?anoey make its pleasure " 23. And that has received a similar estimation also from official Chinese authorities, Irkutsk general-governor I.B.Pestelja, and also the direct heads. An outcome of "business" well-known: guilty have been punished, itself Iakinf by the simple monk has been banished to Valaam that has served as the reason of irreconcilable enmity of the last to "offender" 24.

Dispute of archimandrite Peter and monk Iakinfa, mentioned in the further area of personal attitudes and pererosshy in the sharp and intense scientific polemic between them, proceeded during their all life, yet has not consoled and the Lord the God has not reconciled their Allmighty Uteshitel and Primiritel.

The Close acquaintance with mistakes and failures of the previous missions has allowed archimandrite Peter to make the important changes to system of the organization of the Russian orthodox mission. It is necessary to recognize as a successful innovation formation of Advice of mission from three person (archimandrite and two ieromonaha). Now only advice defined plans of educational employment and current duties of everyone without exception of a member of mission, knew the financial and economic party, defined a degree of awards for differed and a measure of punishments for at fault, conducted the corresponding reporting and correspondence, developed the general line of conduct concerning tsinskih officials and local population and many other things. Functions of the archimandrite have been shown up to a role of " the senior priest " as whom it and was called in order to prevent misunderstanding in the Chinese official papers. Though its authority and knowledge of all circumstances of a life of China have made its real, instead of the formal chief of mission.

The Most steadfast attention in activity X of the Russian orthodox mission was given the sermon of christianity among again christened albazintsev which general number in 1831 made 94 persons. About this party of the activity archimandrite Peter wrote as follows: " Now has again lit up their good fortune Bozhija. Stiffened in jazychestve, these deadmen, owing to piety of Great Russian Sovereigns, paki in bowels of Sacred Church are warmed. Nowadays, among their dwellings, on a place of the become empty monastery of church, again will erect the house Divine and it is supplied nuzhnoju by utensils, not poverty, but riches of showing, Great our Tsars proving piety. Nowadays between them the most capable are installed not only pious, but also to the sermon of word Bozhija spiritual, on clear by it the Chinese language Christian posts explaining " 25. Force of word Bozhiego and sermons of archimandrite Peter have involved in our Church of several Manchurian officials which have kept the kindest memory of the pastor found by them. However, the prays and cares father Peter did not leave them and after the homecoming.

About a state of affairs of mission archimandrite Peter (Kamensky) wrote in the message to the Most holy Synod from February, 2nd, 1823 as follows: " Our mission is in the most blossoming condition, all and everyone separately with indefatigability practise in the ordered employment. The started structures are corrected. Uspenskaja the monastery is inside renewed and outside of is strongly arranged, at it for the appeal albazintsev from idolatry the school is opened, from the houses sold by previous archimandrite two are back bought. From diligent employment spiritual in the Chinese language it is possible by means of Bozhiej to hope, that nuzhnejshie places Svjashchennosluzhenija will be soon translated on the Chinese language, without what circulation albazintsev in Church vainly. Service Bozhija sends in both monasteries, and albazintsy it is enough with us have already approached acquaintance, and in belief revival is expected. Trained children in due course can be the best of the fathers teachers. Now from our party, on their mature perversity, it is required patiences much. For spiritual the knowledge of the Chinese language is necessary necessary " 26.

The Account of local features has caused entering from blessing the Most holy Synod of some changes of not basic character in departure of an orthodox ceremony, namely in Sacrament of a christening (water the head devoted poured only), refusal of an interdiction on consumption of some kinds of foodstuff during a post (milk and oil) excepting chetyredesjatnitsu. The external shape of the priest has changed: an obligatory condition became shaving a head and a beard, carrying in a daily life Chinese ieaouy27. And, the main thing, in mission of archimandrite Peter the liturgy began to be made in the Chinese language - in Uspenskom a temple by directly it, and in Sretenskom a temple in Sunday and holidays ieromonahom Veniamin (Morachevichem).

Having significant monetary n?aanoaaie28, archimandrite Peter (Kamensky) has founded at Uspenskom a monastery in October, 1825 school for training children albazintsev (in quantity 15 person) to law Bozhiemu, the Russian and oa?eiaii-slavic letter, arithmetics and church singing. The iconostasis which has been updated in 1824 and is sent from Russia to Beijing together with money for the maintenance of mission, has been placed in Uspenskoj churches. Some icons for it, under the certificate of police officer of mission of E.F.Timkovskogo, have been written by the Chinese artists in " their national taste ". The temple again repaired, has been consecrated on November, 10th, 1827 At it have been built keli the chief of mission and its other members.

Has been restored Sretensky a temple, and its dome is covered pozolotoju

Under E.F.Timkovskogo's petition the temple was decorated with an iconostasis, plashchanitseju and four pictures on plots from the Scriptus, executed by the professor of the St.-Petersburg academy of arts A.I.Ivanov (1775-1848 29. Since the tenth mission of service in this temple began to be spent on a regular basis. The Russian missionary cemetery which is settled down outside city has been resulted in the order. And, at last, have been redeemed was in zaklade at home and sites of the ground, was by the property of the Russian orthodox mission.

The Big place in activity of archimandrite Peter was allocated to updating of library assembly of our mission in Beijing which basis it has put in pawn still in 1795 a.30 During this period the hard work on purchase and copying of books of various (mainly theological) maintenance was conducted. Doublet copies of many of them subsequently have been forwarded to Russia. " Any sort Christian theological, in the Chinese language of books, on favour Roman veropropovednikov I written off, and a part printed, am available a full collection. The sacred Bible as is written off by me in the Chinese language 2 copies and on Manchurian 2 from which on one are left in local our library and on one I am lucky enough to send to the Most holy Synod for the use on the Imperial Bible society " 31, - so archimandrite Peter wrote about this party of the activity.

Among valuable updatings this library it is necessary to consider works of members of mission. Considering lack of the Christian literature in the Chinese and Manchurian languages (in fact many editions of Catholic missionaries became by then raritetnymi) members of mission led by archimandrite have actively borrowed in translational activity. First of all it, certainly, needs to be carried to ieromonahu to Daniel (Sivillovu) by which diligence have been translated into the Chinese language morning and evening prays; Zertsalo confessions of belief of prelate Dimitrija Rostov; prays behind a liturgy, laymen readable; Stoglavnik sacred Gennady of the patriarch.

The book of known French philosopher N.Malbransha " the Indisputable truth or competition of Christians with pagans " which copy it has received in gift in Irkutsk from M.M.Speransky's column in 1820 This book has received Special attention of archimandrite Peter was translated to it on Manchurian and Russian languages in addition to already existed Chinese translation under the title " Tjanchzhu shi and ". On a way home archimandrite Peter translated the eeoaenei-Manchurian phraseological dictionary " TSinven djanjao " (1793), Which it has finished on December, 31st, 1831, being already in E?eoonea32. Probably, during same time it had been completed translation and final redaktura the Chinese and Manchurian parts of the trilingual dictionary " Sanhe bjanlan " above which it worked together with a Century Novoselovym which has translated Mongolian ?anoe33. Most likely during P.I.Kamenskim's second "Beijing" period " the Big Russian-Chinese dictionary " in three volumes with samples of translation into the Chinese language of separate phrases mainly theological oa?aeoa?a34 has been prepared for printing.

Among works of other members of mission it is necessary to name also translation of the three first parts " Histories of the state Russian " N.M.Karamzina executed by Z.F.Leontevskim35.

During X missions archimandrite Peter on own means actively bought books in the Chinese, Manchurian and Mongolian languages over which hundred copies it subsequently has presented in the most various establishments of Russia (the St.-Petersburg spiritual academy, the Asian department the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the St.-Petersburg public library, the Moscow university, a theological seminary and a grammar school of Irkutsk, nerchinskoe school mongol-neiai language, etc.). Only in October, 1825 it has sent to the Most holy Synod the whole box of books of the Old testament in the Chinese language.

The Important sphere of activity of mission, as well as at previous it, still had a problem of an establishment of correct and normal attitudes with tsinskimi authorities. A considerable role in it the authority and personal charm of the archimandrite have played. Greater popularity of mission self-denying work of doctor I.P.Voitsekhovsky during epidemic of a plague which raged in Beijing per 1820-1821, and also has given successful treatment of one by it of relatives bogdyhana. On the honourable board, brought to the doctor in this case on November, 14th, 1829, it has been written: " the Tub the Dignity mjaoshu " 36. It is necessary to note also and regular, competently, but at the same time it is strict and rigidly organized (because of carelessness of local pupils) teaching activity ieromonaha Veniamin (Morachevicha) at school of Russian at Lifanjuane.

Other essential problem mutual relations with representatives of other Christian faiths and the awards had the representation in Beijing continued to remain. Members of mission had the kindest attitudes with last representatives of Catholic mission. As bishop K.P follows from N.I.Voznesenskogo's letter to archpriest of the Peter and Paul cathedral of F.S.Pesotskomu, after death on October, 2nd, 1826 supriora to southern cathedral board Rebejry nankinsky. Pereira has presented its our mission aeaeeioaeo37. To the big interest of Catholic missionaries in friendly contacts to members of our mission testify also Z.F.Leontyevsky and ieromonah Veniamin (Morachevich). And I.P.Kovalevsky who has arrived in structure of already XI Russian orthodox mission so has responded about a meeting with the Portuguese cleric on December, 4th 1830 g.: " It is impossible to describe pleasure with koeju us has met this respectable starets (t. e. K.P. Pereira. - About.), Last from the European missionaries in Beijing, gonimyj zloschastnoju sudboju among artful Chineses. Honour to members of Russian mission which did not leave its visitings, was supported with a life and spirit Christian veropropovednika, surrounded by envious pagans! " 38.

Archimandrite Peter has as follows depicted position of Catholic mission in China in the second term of the there stay in one of reports addressed to the iaa?-public prosecutor of the Most holy Synod of prince P.S.Meshcherskogo: " the Roman missionary work in all China is destroyed. Now through illness before recover one bishop Piret (t is left. e. K.P. Pereira. - About.). Their churches collapse, and extensive manors rasprodany from which and we from the permission of the local government, for state incomes have bought two vegetable kitchen gardens and a little lavok, all tsenoju about ten pood of silver. To sew missions hour from an hour local it is aggravated the governments political blagoraspolozhenie. All our needs and requests are satisfied rather favourably " 39.

Similar circumstances have allowed the Russian government to estimate highly activity X of mission after its returning from China on September, 3rd, 1831 All remained in structure of mission have received a positive estimation of the chief and after homecoming were properly nagrazhdeny and were promoted on service. Archimandrite Peter for besporochnuju and self-denying service as chief X of the Russian orthodox mission in China was nagrazhden Sacred Anna's award of 1-st degree (the first among ecclesiastics of a similar dignity). It has received Sacred Vladimir's award of 3-rd degree still being in structure of mission. It designated on archiepiscopal faculty to the Astrakhan province. However it has preferred to retire in Feodorovskuju a monastery Gorodtsa (the Nizhniy Novgorod province, district Balahninsky) where under the legend Grand duke Alexander Jaroslavich Nevsky after returning from the trip to Golden Horde to Berk-khan has died, having accepted a monastic vow under Alex's name on November, 14th 1263 a.40 Last years P.I.Kamensky's lives has lead in the continuous and active cares connected with restoration of this monastery; it spent a significant part of pension and property for realization of the plan, including presented to it emperor Nikolay I a diamond ring.

As if to China every year in dnevnikovyh records Kamenskogo the volume of data on it is steadily reduced. The general estimation of the years lead by it there more likely negative. " About China! - it wrote. - you are a lot of at me have carried away invaluable time. 27-th years it is lead above mechanical only your employment, but consoles one only that this is lost on service; if not it any tears a shred of loss to mourn was not possible. The Chinese these employment, and at that aaiii-night, not only do not multiply knowledge, and before got chrez long duration deprive " 41.

Photograph from
Boris Alexandrov

Though and it is possible to concern to the given judgement of archimandrite Peter differently. In fact in it one very important idea that studying of history and culture of the country with such powerful and old tradition essentially increased propaedeutics " kitaisticheskih studies " (included the bare data in all areas of knowledge) which studying could be stretched for some years of the most laborious and persistent work is guessed. And that is why, by the way, in the environment of missionaries there was a representation about the European scientists never lived in China, as about " empty drums ", which " the pustee, the gromchee ".

Perhaps, last time steadfast attention Kamenskogo to China will be involved with the advent of in the Petersburg newspapers of the information on the beginning of the first "opium" war (1840-1842) which chances in it it estimated is lowest. " From rzhanija northern horse, legions of the Chinese armies run up. The lazy nation does not own China. The Chinese speaks: who the priest so for us batka - only would not stir to our customs. It speaks: we on experience saw, as our natural sovereigns operated not is better, as well as alien " 42.

But such mentions in it zapiskah are very rare. Cleanly terrestrial borrows a little and excites it. Archimandrite Peter already completely entrusts itself to with Whom the inevitable and fast meeting is necessary to it. In fact there, where the life comes to an end, not necessarily there comes death. " And otret the God any tear from their eyes, and death will not be already; neither crying, nor a cry, illnesses any more will not be, for former has passed " (Otkr. 21, 4). In consciousness of this idea the orthodox pastor of China has found the eternal calm on May, 17th, 1845.

1 See, for example: Vahtin B.B., Gurevich I.S., Krol J.L., etc. the Catalogue of fund Chinese ksilografov Institute of oriental studies AN the USSR., 1973. 

Vyp. 1-3.; Volkova M.P.description of Manchurian manuscripts of Institute of people of Asia AN the USSR., 1965; Manchurian manuscripts and ksilografy the State public library of a name of M.E.saltykova: the Regular catalogue / Sost. K.S.Jahontov. SPb., 1991; the Chinese manuscripts and ksilografy Public library: the Regular catalogue / Sost. K.S.Jahontov. SPb., 1993; JAhontov K.S.Chinese and Manchurian books in Irkutsk. SPb., 1994.

2 is more detailed sm.: GIALO, f. 19, op. 413, a unit hr. 120, 670 l.

3 Materials for history of the Russian spiritual mission in Beijing / Under red.

N.I.Veselovskogo. SPb., 1905. Vyp. 1. With. 48.

4 it is especially evident this point of view it is displayed in one of variants of the film script of P.E.Skachkova " Iakinf Bichurin - the founder of Russian kitaevedenija " (Archive of orientalists of SPb. FIV the Russian Academy of Science, f. 130, op. 1, a unit hr. 21).

5 History of domestic oriental studies up to the middle of XIX century., 1990. With. 270.

6 In the same place.

7 TSit. On: Mozharovsky And. To history of our spiritual mission in China (archimandrite Peter Kamensky) // Russian archive., 1886. № 7. With. 412.

8 RGIA, f. 796, op. 104, a unit hr. 714, l. 2 about., 3.

9 RGIA, f. 796, op. 99, a unit hr. 877, l. 14-14 about.

10 Jumps K.A. Descendants albazintsev in Beijing // Russian art leaf. 1859. № 2. On January 10. With. 9.

11 In different sources independent from each other the inconsistent data concerning the biography of P.I.Kamenskogo are resulted frequently. So, in the necrologue placed in " Magazine of the ministry of national education " for 1845, year of a birth of Paul Ivanovicha is specified 1773 (XLVI. № 6. June. Otd. VII: News and a mix. 

With. 46). The Track record of archimandrite Peter carries this date to 1770 (RGIA

f. 796, op. 99, a unit hr. 877, l. 52).

12 Almost all translations and P.I.Kamenskogo's works have remained in manuscripts. Exception make only: " About the Chinese plant zhen-oaiu, with figure of this " (" Works of the Free economic society " for 1815 T. 65. With. 158-162), " magazine, vedennyj in Beijing on the occasion of arrival from the Russian state of envoy Nikolay Gavrilovicha Spafarija " (" the Siberian bulletin " for 1823 CH. 3. With. 29-100) and " a note about albazintsah " (are published in Beijing in 1906).

13 Archive of orientalists of SPb. FIV the Russian Academy of Science, f. 42, op. 1, a unit hr. 1, l. 286.

14 OR and RK RNB, F-XVII, a unit hr. 24/3, l. 300.

15 Travel of archimandrite Sofronija Gribovskogo from Beijing up to Kyakhta in 1808 // the Siberian bulletin. SPb., 1823. CH. 1. With. 38.

16 Archive of orientalists of SPb. FIV the Russian Academy of Science, razr. I, op. 9, a unit hr. 9; OR and RK RNB, a whale. It is new. Sulfurs., a unit hr. 122.

17 More in detail pjatijazychnogo the dictionary it is possible to get acquainted with circumstances of the edition on materials of fund № 56 Archives of orientalists of SPb. FIV the Russian Academy of Science (a unit hr. 61-81). From here we learn, that for a basis of the dictionary of P.I.Kamensky has taken the dictionary published in board Tsjanluna.

18 Magazine of the ministry of national education. 1821. № 9. With. 153-156.

19 RGIA, f. 796, op. 99, a unit hr. 877, l. 39.

20 Mozharovsky A.F. To history... With. 407.

21 Brief history of Russian Orthodox Mission in China, made on the occasion of the two hundred year's anniversary which has executed in 1913 of its existence. Beijing, 1916. With. 95.

22 RGIA, f. 796, op. 99, a unit hr. 877, l. 355.

23 In the same place. L. 151.

24 it is interesting to note that circumstance, that under the decree of the Most holy Synod from June, 30th, 1827, being on Valaam, already after court above it, father Iakinf received 1200 rbl. of the annual sums and still specially 300 rbl. annually on scientific employment, that will not be coordinated at all with the stated number of the Soviet researchers the assumption that that was exposed to prosecutions from church authorities as the freethinker (RGIA, f. 796, op. 99, ? 877, l. 323 about.).

25 TSit. On: Chinese Blagovestnik. 1685-1935: the Anniversary collection devoted 

To the 250 anniversary from the date of the basis of the Russian orthodox mission in China. Beijing, 1935. With. 104.

26 RGIA, f. 796, op. 99, ? 877, l. 282.

27 about this party of the activity in the report members of Advice of mission Here is how wrote to the Most holy Synod from July, 1st, 1824 archimandrite Peter, ieromonahi Veniamin and Daniel, collegiate asessor I.P.Voitsekhovsky: " During four-year-old stay of spiritual mission in Beijing, extreme necessities, owing to distinction of a climate and customs of China with our domestic, to deviation from some ceremonies and rules svjatyja nasheja were given to Church as rather novoprizyvaemyh children Hristovyh, and the members of mission. And:

1a. The foreigner in China is a rarity and a wonder. And consequently where it would not seem in the attire, will serve everywhere as a show to people and the sample of the barbarian. Therefore... Have found it is necessary necessary, in order to prevent those obstacles, to trim heads and beards and, leaving from a court yard to put on the Chinese dress.

2a. <Albazintsy refuse to nake at a christening a body>. Therefore yes not prepjatie will rely blagovestiju Hristovu, necessary is recognized to make this sacrament chrez vozlivanie only on the chapter kreshchajushchegosja sacred water.

3a. nepostojannejshy a climate in northern parts of China; different properties proizrasteny onago and waters with our domestic were not malovazhnoju prichinoju to a relaxation of health, almost all members of mission. Moreover lack of fast things as that: fishes, mushrooms, dry vegetables, to kvass and that similar which at us eat during posts, did preservation of these for health absolutely wearisome. And consequently also not smaller necessity has forced, having excluded chetyredesjatnitsu, in all other posts to resolve on oil and milk " (RGIA, f. 796, op. 99, № 877, l. 295-295 about.).

28 Vysochajshe the approved instruction from the August, 4th, 1818, confirmed by instructions 1839 and 1847, has increased the sum which is released on the salary and the maintenance of mission, with 6500 up to 16 250 rbl. a year, having established new clauses of charges, namely: on payment of teachers of the Chinese, Manchurian and Mongolian languages, purchase of books, etc. (Kjuner history of the countries of the Far East. CH. 2: the Review of the relations of China with the European powers from XVI century till 1842. Vyp. 3: the Relations with Russia. Vladivostok, 1910. With. 80).

29 General representation about structures of mission can be received on S.I.Tcherepanov's sketches - the commander of group of the cossacks accompanied XI mission on a way to Beijing. Copies of these sketches are stored in funds M.V. Ladyzhensky (the Museum of anthropology and ethnography it. Peter Velikogo) and Z.F.Leontyevsky (OR and RK RNB).

30 Sm.: Karmanovskaja I.L.treasure of the Russian spiritual mission in Beijing // Problems of the Far East. 1990. № 5. With. 195.

31 RGIA, f. 796, op. 99, № 877, l. 299 about.

32 Archive of orientalists of SPb. FIV the Russian Academy of Science, f. 24, op. 1, a unit hr. 4.

33 Now the site of the given manuscript is not revealed. A mention of it sm.: Archive of orientalists. A unit hr. 15, l. 68.

34 Sm.: In the same place, a unit hr. 1-3.

35 Sm.: OR and RK RNB, f. Dorn, a unit hr. 745.

36 " the Fine treatment, similar the Tub to the Dignity ", t. e. To the known doctor of ancient China (P.E.sketch's Jumps ? With. 196).

37 Sm.: Peacemakers of Century Materials for history of the Beijing spiritual mission // the Orthodox interlocutor. Kazan, 1888. September. With. 118-119.

38 OR and RK NPB, f. 100, op. 2, a unit hr. 612, l. 59.

39 RGIA, f. 796, op. 99, № 877, l. 326.

40 From Feodorovskogo Gorodetsky's description of a monastery. SPb., 1872. With. 12.

41 Archive of orientalists..., a unit hr. 14, l. 110 ia.-111.

42 In the same place, a unit hr. 15, l. 41.

The List of reductions

GIALO - the State historical archive of Leningrad region

SPb. FIV the Russian Academy of Science - the St.-Petersburg branch of Institute of oriental studies of the Russian academy of sciences

RGIA - the Russian state historical archive

OR and RK RNB - the Department of manuscripts and hand-written books of the Russian national library