Русский | St Petersburg Metropolitanate. The Church Bulletin №6, 2003 | English Machine Translation
prof. A.I.Makarovsky


(to the 150 anniversary from the date of death)

Arhim. Iakinf (Bichurin)

During the first period of the life in Beijing about. Iakinf Bichurin fairly acted taken by it up as the chief of mission. It was engaged in the device of mission, the organization of divine service, repair of church buildings, observed of behaviour of members of mission. For business of the reference in Orthodoxy of Chineses, and also for religious education albazintsev about. Iakinf, it is enough known the Chinese language, has made a brief catechism in the Chinese language [1]. Mission has stopped the works not because of " indifferences of its chief to religion " (so it is possible to conclude from the remark of the author of clause about Bichurine in the Big Soviet Encyclopedia, II edition): it has broken up under impacts of material need, because of full indifference to its destiny of bureaucratic Petersburg and because of constraining operating conditions in " the closed China ".

O. Iakinf, convinced, after acquaintance with affairs of mission on a place in Beijing, that the volume of activity for mission and personally for it is extraordinary narrow, has addressed to persevering studying the Chinese language by an example of the best Russian missionaries (prelate Stefan Perm, Varsonofy Kazan, Feodor Buharev and others) which considered impossible orthodox missionary work without preliminary knowledge of language of those people to which the Russian missionary went with svoeju the sermon. A free time from the direct missionary duties, brilliant mental faculties to philological employment, work and the patience which has opened at studying nice features of the Chinese nation and riches of its culture and history were the reasons of switching about. Iakinfa with it is religious-practical activities the orthodox missionary on fascinating work of Russian sinologa.

* * *

In character about. Iakinfa there was a feature by virtue of which it was given favourite business in every way the presented nature. This complete otdannost to favourite business - - also has forced valuable gift of any outstanding scientist about. Iakinfa to leave unsuccessfully developed missionary work as to it it was forced also with external circumstances of feedback under the court, terminated deprivation of a sacred dignity and the conclusion in a monastery. O.Iakinf if wanted could not continue already the service of Church in a sacred dignity as it have deprived with this dignity. proisshedshaja with about. Iakinfom the vital accident which has sharply differentiated it a life for two periods - religious-church service and the naaonei-scientist of activity, - has brought even its a attention to the question on leaving from church service where it has not met from the heads protection, indulgence to mistakes of the service and lacks of the private life.

As is known, sinodskim the decision deprived a sacred dignity about. Iakinf has been banished in Valaamsky a monastery [2]. There Are no data as spent the monastic solitary life about. Iakinf, but it is possible with bolshoju probability to assume, that it gave all leisure of a monastic solitude to the favourite scientific works on studying China.

In Valaamskom a monastery about. Iakinf has stayed 4 years. From a monastic imprisonment it was rescueed with that science kitaevedenija to which it gave all the forces. The spiritual heads has released from the monastic conclusion about. Iakinfa under the request of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs where it in 1826 has been appointed by the translator in the Asian department, under the petition for it the influential official of baron of Shilling background Kapshtadta. Now about. Iakinf has entered on the present life of the worker of a science to which it self-denyingly and has served in continuation of 27 years to the death in 1853.

In 1830-1831 about. Iakinfu it was necessary to visit again on affairs Siberia and on the Chinese border. It left there as the translator at the official of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs Shilling background Kapshtadte. The inconveniences tested in road from monastic clothes, and, maybe, and promptings of the baron, hesitated a finding at it of the official in a spiritual attire, - these, and, probably, and have induced other circumstances about. Iakinfa to make attempt to address in Over the Synod with prosboju about removal from it of a monastic dignity. So on May, 29th, 1631 vice-chancellor Nesselrode has addressed to the iaa?-public prosecutor Over the Synod to prince Meshcherskomu with the letter in which wrote: " Being nowadays in Eastern Siberia on affairs of service monk Iakinf known on deep knowledge of the literature of China and hitherto not prestajushchy to enrich our fatherland and the Europe with useful data on the account of this state not in every respect known, - has addressed in the Ministry about predstatelstve that from it have combined a monastic rank, that at its scientific employment and on weaknesses peculiar to the person, it cannot with accuracy and on conscience to observe all vows of a nunhood, and that this dignity interferes with it in free departure assigned on it on service of duties " [3.] {3}

nesselrode asked assistance of the iaa?-public prosecutor Over the Synod, and that has addressed to the Petersburg metropolitan Serafimu (Glagolevskomu). Metropolitan has informed, that there are no especial reasons, able to serve pregradoju to removal of a monastic rank from monk Iakinfa, but only for this purpose it is required, that Iakinf Bichurin has sent the application in Over the Synod. O.Iakinf has submitted the application in Over the Synod, however the request had no success.

prosboju about removal from it of a monastic dignity about. Iakinf, on frankness peculiar to it, as though has publicly declared about full otryve from the last service of Church, wished to leave absolutely from under trusteeship of spiritual authorities. This step about. Iakinfa it is impossible to understand differently as all the image long its lives shows, that it not only had no propensity to a religious-contemplate monastic life, but to it was alien both the schedule and a life of a nunhood. It is possible to think, that acceptance of monastic vows dvadtsatitrehletnim the young man has been made without enough deep obdumanija this serious vital step which, perhaps, and has been made about. Iakinfom from desire to receive the best opportunities for scientific career as was in custom of that time. For an example we can refer to a galaxy of our first church historians-monks on behalf of monk Platon, monk Evgenie (Bolhovitinova), archbishop Philaret (Gumilevskogo). Also is admissible to assume, as personal charges about. Iakinfa " in perversity " covered with itself its opened not a monastic way of life when it evaded to carry monastic clothes, preferring to it a usual spiritual attire of secular clergy; avoided fast food, being unable it accept; loved a society of secular persons; to visiting of church preferred the intense brainwork. To revealing of the vital habits discrediting the monk, what about. Iakinf was registered up to the end of the days, the open, direct character much promoted about. Iakinfa, and also constant "sogljadatajstvo" neighbours, monks Alexander Nevsky Lavra, in one of kely which it was ordered to live about. Iakinfu.

* * *

s.-iaoa?ao?a. Arhim.
Iakinf (Bichurin) among
Known figures Russian
Cultures in the house
Prince A.N.Olenina

The History of Russian science should be grateful to the grand daughter about. Iakinfa which in the memoirs gives objective enough picture of a life about. Iakinfa for the 25-years period of its scientific activity.

Before us the scientist-eremite who is not found for possible to live without the Chinese books and without work above them. Above this work it sat tirelessly every day, and sometimes, because of intensity of work, it worked on such hobby that forgot both about meal, and about a dream, and did not leave the room till some days [4]. Speed, indefatigability and fruitfulness in work about. Iakinfa were those, that it offered the manuscripts for printing with izumljavsheju all haste so censors had not time to look through them [5.] O.Iakinf has plunged into the scientific work, as in native elements, printing the book behind the book, placing clauses in many magazines of Petersburg and Moscow.

It understood itself(himself) one of cultural figures of then Russia why supported wide acquaintances to the most outstanding representatives of Russian science and progressive public figures. It could be seen in literary interiors, it was a sign with Pushkin who showed the big interest to works about. Iakinfa [6.] O. Iakinf has been connected with V.F.Odoevsky's circle and happened on its literary Saturdays; met Belinsky, Panaevym, Nekrasov, its compositions were read by Goncharov [7], Belinsky also was the assiduous reader about. Iakinfa. " The book of respectable father Iakinfa - true treasure for the doctrine, on riches of the important facts. <...> On all it is visible, that respectable about. Iakinf knows China much better the Europe " [8.]

Two times - in 1830-1831 and 1835-1837 - about. Iakinf left to the Siberian Kyakhta on assigned on it the government to assignments. In Kyakhta it has opened school of the Chinese language where itself taught and prepared for textbooks.

* * *

Beijing. Uspensky
Cathedral of Orthodox mission.
1930s photo

Being the prominent representative of Russian culture and the public of the middle of XIX century, about. Iakinf as the main business of the life considered the proceedings about China. During stay in China it so "okitailsja", that about it spoke: about. Iakinf " not only speaks, but also thinks and even raves in a dream on-eeoaenee " [9]. This scientific work on China about. Iakinf has planned to itself for all life still during the stay of in China. Per 1821 from China there leaved the compromised chief of the Spiritual Russian mission which have run into poverty, but it leaved home vigorous and joyful as carried with itself that rich scientific material, above which in glory of the native land it will devote work the life in Petersburg.

" During the stay in Beijing we sinolog has collected not few rarities and antikov the Chinese industry. Having taken them with itself(himself), it surprised then with them public in Russia. The body of weights was made by greater library about. Iakinfa, and also the books bought, certainly, not without its assistance, for libraries of the Asian department and Imperial public in s.-iaoa?ao?aa, and also for school of the Asian languages in Irkutsk. These weights weighed about 400 poods, and for one transportation up to Kyakhta has been paid to the contractor about 750 roubles by silver. They had been loaded 15 camels ". " It is safely possible to tell, - the contemporary of events, - that for all has written down 8 changes of the Russian imperial mission in Beijing, was during 100 years, is not taken out so great number of useful compositions, as to the present ninth change of this " [10.]

Collected about. Iakinfom during a life in China and trips to Mongolia the Chinese both Tibetan literature and museum collections are stored in institutes of oriental studies and ethnography of the Academy of sciences of the USSR. This richest material used about. Iakinfom in its works, enables in details to study a life, spiritual and material culture of Asian people. O.Iakinf in the works " was not based on prejudices or the data informed by former travellers and consequently each thing saw in its original kind. To this reasonable rule about. Iakinf also it is obliged by the successes in disclosing equal prevratnyh data and the false opinions, informed to the Europe former travellers and orientalistami [11.]

An Outstanding scientific activity about. Iakinfa was recognized already at its life and not only in Russia, but also abroad. In 1831 the Parisian Asian society, on representation of three French scientists, has selected Iakinfa Bichurina the member. Compositions about. Iakinfa, at once after an output from a press, were translated on the French and German languages, about them messages in scientific organizations and in the West-European press were done. Russian Academy of sciences in 1837 has selected about. Iakinfa Bichurina the member-correspondent under the category of the literature and an antiquity of the East [12]. It awarded to it for outstanding works Demidovskie of the premium. As the academician, about. Iakinf put the work under a management of Academy and some works wrote under the plans offered by Academy [13.]

In 1837 about. Iakinfa has selected the member-correspondent Russian Geographical society.

* * *

Beijing. A kind of Northern farmstead
(Beat-aoaiu) Orthodox Russian
Missions. From the figure executed
The Chinese. XIX century

O.Iakinf Bichurin lives in memory of Russian people as the scientist of large scale, as our outstanding sinolog, in general, as the orientalist.

For Russian sinologii and up to now has the value the rich scientific inheritance in the form of its solid compositions. From original compositions about. Iakinfa are known: the Note about Mongolia, t. 1-2, 1828; the Description of Beijing, 1828; the Historical review ojratov or Kalmyks from XV century till now, 1834; Statistical data on China, 1837; China, its inhabitants, customs, customs, education, 1840; the Statistical description of the Chinese empire, ch. 1-2, 1842; Agriculture in China, 1844; China in a civil and moral condition, ch. 1-4, 1848; Assembly of data on people lived in Central Asia during ancient times, ch. 1-3, 1851; the Geographical index of places on a card to history of ancient Central Asian people, 1851; O.Iakinf Bichurin: the Autobiographical note, 1855.

Translations have Greater scientific value also about. Iakinfa with Chinese on Russian. To such concern: the Description of Tibet in its present condition, 1828; History of first four khans from house CHingisova, 1829; Description CHzhungarii and East Turkistana in an ancient and present condition, ch. 1-2, 1829; History of Tibet and Huhunora, ch. 1-2, 1833; Statistical description CHzhungarii in its present condition, 1841 [14].

In general, about. Iakinfom it is written over hundred scientific works from which some tens have not seen light and are stored in various archives [15.]

Value of proceedings about. Iakinfa it is exclusively great and not only for development Russian sinologii, but also for a world science kitaevedenija. Numerous works on translation and use of the Chinese sources, on their deep and critical studying, on accuracy and completeness of translations entitle to recognize about. Bichurina not only the first sinologom in Russia that time, but also leaving far behind of itself modern to it West-European sinologov.

* * *

Beijing. Religious procession
Orthodox children-Chineses
From a temple of All Sacred
Martyrs in Uspensky
Cathedral. A photo of 1930th

The Orientation and the maintenance of proceedings about. Iakinfa are very various.

It was the brilliant expert on the Chinese language, as has enabled it to collect, investigate and translate a plenty of valuable Chinese works. As to the philologist about. Iakinfu one of outstanding places in history of the Chinese philology belongs. Among its published and not published philological works translations of monuments of the classical Chinese literature are considered especially important grammar of the Chinese language, and also.

Versatilly studying China in its past and the present, about. Iakinf has like deep respect and reverence of Chinese people and its culture. It found in the Chinese state " a lot of good, instructive for the Europeans turned in a whirlwind of different political systems " [16]. In a life it liked to repeat, critically responding about something: " you judge badly, in an European way, instead of on-are Asian " [17.]

O.Iakinf proved originality of the Chinese culture, its antiquity and the rich maintenance. It named "ridiculous" racist, pangermanskie statements of the German scientists recognized tribes tjan-oaiy "protogermanskimi" [18]. In the wide scientific outlook about. Iakinf kept progressive sights of Russian public idea, in its works found reflection its emancipating humanistic ideals [19.]

Works about. Iakinfa, containing the richest actual material, are necessary and presently for studying history of China, Mongolia and other countries of the East, including of some people of our Native land - altaians, Khakases, Tuvinians, the Buryat, Tungus people [20.]

All huge quantity of works about. Iakinfa testifies to a variety of its scientific interests and about many-sided nature of its knowledge. It interested not only problems of the China, but also Tibet, Mongolia, Manchzhurii, people of Central Asia. It is natural, that about. Iakinf especial attention gave histories of China.

In a basis of the historical works about China about. Iakinf has safely put and firmly protected necessity to study history of China under the Chinese originals which not only supplement data of the Greek writers and travellers to China, but also correct, and explain ancient Greek historians and geographers. This correct scientifically-methodical working method above history of China has been recognized by the subsequent Russian kitaevedami. As for ancient, and new times, only the Chinese records and wanderings can explain history and geography of all east Asia. If we know nowadays Manchuria, Mongolia, Tibet and the western surburbs of Asia are obliged by it not to small European travellers, and Chinese geografijam [21.]

Having put a problem of the scientific activity to find a solution for unresolved questions of history of China at the Chinese contemporaries and historians, about. Iakinf firmly kept the progressive concept developed by it which has been got by deep historicity. In the extensive historical works about. Iakinf has safely lifted some questions from ancient, medieval and a modern history of China, investigated as inwardness of the country during the different periods of its life, and its external communications with other states. Leaning on plentiful Chinese sources, about. Iakinf protected an antiquity of the Chinese history which begins, under its statement, since III millenium up to n. e., categorically denying " zastojnost China ", opening evolution of the Chinese society within 40 centuries [22]. In works about. Iakinfa "mysterious" China acted as one of great people in the past, having the general destiny with all world and mankind, but at the same time and extraordinary original, not similar to the European people.

Any question from the last or modern life of China about. Iakinf investigated with izumitelnoju carefulness and glubinoju. In the descriptions of the Chinese society it did not pass by its class structure, persistently stopped on the image of a political system of China. Its attention was stopped on themselves with social and economic problems of China. Tensely, persistently nauchaja history of China and hoping in it to find bases modern to it positions of Chinese people, about. Iakinf foresaw in historical process of the main agent on behalf of the most Chinese people. Its historical destiny it explained not actions of tsars and dynasties on which names the Chinese historians usually stated history of the country, but historical events it explained the instruction of the operating reasons, in the form of struggle of political groups and action of external political forces [23]. The limited Chinese monarchism seem to it almost the best form of a state system of people [24]. But it only a press of an epoch in which lived and worked about. Iakinf, historical, economic-geographical and philological sights are essential its advanced the then, its respect and sympathy for object of the proceedings - to Chinese people are surprising. The academic reviewers of its works who have generalized all work about were in this respect right. Iakinfa about China in such words: " Anybody, indoubtedly, has not made in the Europe so much for glory and honour of China, as our well-known sinolog " [25.] {25}

* * *

O.Iakinf was not only the historian, the geographer and the economist of China: " the Assembly of data on people lived in Central Asia during ancient times " gives the full right to consider it its historian, in general, the Central Asia. This work, pereizdannyj in 1950 Institute of ethnography of the Academy of sciences of the USSR, and " till now is almost unique management for studying history of people of the Central Asia with IV-III centuries up to n. e. On beginning X of a century n. e. [26] being based on indications of the Chinese sources and " proceeding from a true substantive provision about an ethnic origin of various tribes, Bichurin has managed to give the wide, thought over classification of people of the Central Asia on three ethnic groups. This classification, earlier often call in question, nowadays almost completely was recognized " [27.]

Acquainting the Europe with history of people of the Central Asia, about. Iakinf has presented scientific data especially valuable the then on Tibet and Mongolia. About its composition on Tibet contemporaries, that spoke about. Iakinf "has opened" to the Europe Tibet. It " has filled with this work existed in vostokovedcheskih knowledge emptiness " [28.]

Understand itself obliged about. Iakinfu and mongolovedy. In the works about Mongolia which it studied and it is direct, about. Iakinf not only has given fine translations of the Chinese sources, till now anybody unsurpassed, but also has stated ideas valuable to a science on the Mongolian nationalities. Its works across Mongolia " differed novelty of an idea, the courageous decision of a lot of problems modern to it mongolovedenija, for example, problems of an origin of Mongols, about an origin of their name, about Tatars of XIII century " [29]. It is natural, that capital works about. Iakinfa about Tibet, Mongolia, East Turkestan, Manchuria, Central Asia at once after an output from a press were widely used by the West-European authors and have not lost the value and up to now [30.]

* * *

The Wide scientific outlook about. Iakinfa, depth and validity of its scientific views, the scientific enthusiasm which has not left about. Iakinfa in its selfless work till last days its lives, - these light features of self-denying service to a science and the native land should influence young contemporaries and not induce them to continue nice business about. Iakinfa. Occurrence year after year printed works about. Iakinfa as though cleared away wide road on which it was already easy to go to its followers. If itself about. Iakinf the flatter response of the authoritative academician Bartold approving has deserved, that, owing to works Bichurina, " Russian sinologija still in 1851 and 1852 has outstripped West-European " [31] it is direct behind it to China young men not so much for difficult in conditions of that time and unproductive missionary work, how many for continuation of works directed about. Iakinfa, for creation Russian sinologicheskoj schools. Spiritual schools of Mainly Kazan edge also allocated from themselves that self-denying and talented youth which in staff of the Chinese mission was as though branch orientologicheskogo branches of Russian Academy of sciences, whence there was a nice galaxy of Russian sinologov second half XIX centuries. We shall specify even such representatives of brilliant 12-th Chinese mission of 40th years of XIX century, what about. A palladium, V.P.Vasilev, V.V.mountain and N.I.Zaharov. They recognized high value of proceedings about. Iakinfa, and it addressed them at departure to China " not only useful advice and instructions, but also gave direct lessons in the Chinese literature. Therefore, if they also cannot be named pupils about. Iakinfa in full sense, that, indoubtedly, it is possible to consider as continuers of its works and enthusiasts, for which compositions about. Iakinfa were a starting point in their scientific employment " [32]. About. Iakinf not only in half XIX centuries has made the whole revolution in sinologicheskoj to a science, but also was especially valuable founder Russian sinologii, provided its further nice development. {32}

* * *

Beijing. Northern farmstead
(Beiguan). A temple of All
Holy Martyrs.
1930s photo

Mournfully and alone, among human estrangement and neponjatosti, in full aging physical strengths lived about. Iakinf last years the life in monastic kelii Alexander Nevsky Lavra. When for about. Iakinfa there has come last hour the inevitable end for each person of the circle of a life certain to it on the ground, on Lazarevskom a cemetery Alexander Nevsky Lavra the new, modest tomb has grown about. Iakinfa, - test of value and a fortress of that business to which this devotee of a science has given the life has begun also. It has appeared, that the person and proceedings about. Iakinfa have sustained already and centenary test, and for it immortality of human memory has come.

When mistakes of a life were forgot about. Iakinfa also there were one scientific merits and the well-known name there was before descendants cleared from charges and attacks an attractive person about. Iakinfa, the sincere, truthful, progressive scientist and the public man hotly loved the native land. " I have got used to write one efficient, to express frankly and besides in short words " [33]. It is natural, that the people close known about. Iakinfa, draw its image as the is truthful-sharp person nice features.

" The Person about. Iakinfa was light, humane, accessible to high movements of heart. It was sympathetic on mountain and misfortune near and when addressed to it for the help, never in it refused. However, it had many strangenesses, and many considered it the odd fellow. In the expressions it did not hesitate and happened sometimes is too sharp. The people known it it is close, excused to it this weakness and loved it iskrenno, genuinely. Malicious, somebody caused to it, it easily forgave and immediately forgot it for ever " [34.]

The Image about. Iakinfa becomes brighter when Russian public and a science recognize for about. Iakinfom not grown dull glory of an outstanding researcher of the East, the historian and sinologa, approved in half XIX centuries for Russian sinologiej the first place in the Europe.

Tomb arhim.
Iakinfa on
Lazarevskom a cemetery
Alexander Nevsky

Russian Church and Russian spiritual school have the rights molitvenno to remember an outstanding scientist and the patriot left spiritual school and served to Russian Church in a monastic dignity by the chief of the Chinese orthodox mission. The person of wide religious sights freely concerned rules of a monastic life, nevertheless about. Iakinf cannot be carried only to secular thinkers at all. It is necessary to recognize proved the application of the researcher of a life and activity about. Iakinfa, written about it in thirty years after its death and consequently still heard oral stories of contemporaries about "odd fellow-monk" when it speaks about about. Iakinfe: " As the ecclesiastic, about. Iakinf, undoubtedly, searched and found moral support and a reinforcement in christianity. It is remarkable, that it, after deprivation of a dignity, has remained for all life in the restrained image of " monk Iakinfa ", as well as subscribed under the compositions " [35.]



[*] the Termination. The beginning sm.: " the Church Bulletin " №5 for 2003, with. 48-54.

[1] Sm.: the Orthodox interlocutor, 1886, 1-4, with. 274 trace.

[2] Author of clause about Bichurine in the Big Soviet encyclopedia (II izd.) wrongly speaks, that about. Iakinf has been banished on the lifelong reference " in the remote monastery ".

[3] Russian Olden time, 1888, 7-9, with. 303-304.

[4] Sm.: N.S.Moller. Iakinf Bichurin in far memoirs of its grand daughter, with. 527.

[5] L.V.Simonivskaja. Bichurin, as the historian of China, contributions and messages of Historical faculty of the Moscow state university of name M.V. Lomonosov, century of 7-th., 1948, with. 49; N.S.Moller. The decree. soch., with. 275.

[6] Sm.: the Greater Soviet encyclopedia, II izd.; L.V.Simonivskaja. The decree. soch., with. 49.

[7] Frigate a Pallada., 1949, with. 394.

[8] Sm.: Questions of history. 1953, 8, with. 173.

[9] N.S.Moller. The decree. soch., with. 281, 289.

[10] Orthodox Interlocutor, 1886, 1-4, with. 69.

[11] M.P.Pogodin. The decree. soch., with. 68.

[12] D.I.Tikhonov (Questions of history, 1953, VIII, with. 173) specifies year of election 1828.

[13] Orthodox Interlocutor, 1886, VII, with. 291 trace; L.V.Simonivskaja. The decree. soch., with. 56-57.

[14] Sm.: the Greater Soviet encyclopedia, II izd.

[15] Z.I.Gorbachev. Questions of history. 1953, VIII, with. 175.

[16] In the same place, with. 172.

[17] Russian olden time, with. 528.

[18] Questions of history, with. 172.

[19] Sm.: the Greater Soviet encyclopedia, II izd.

[20] In the same place.

[21] Sm.: Vasilev. A sketch of history of the Chinese literature, with. 134; the Orthodox Interlocutor. 1886, July, with. 308 comments

[22] L.V.Simonivskaja. The decree. soch., with. 54, 57.

[23] In the same place, with. 55.

[24] In the same place, with. 52.

[25] In the same place, with. 56.

[26] prof. N.V.Kjuner. Questions of history. 1953, 8, with. 173.

[27] In the same place, with. 174.

[28] Sm.: L.V.Simonivskaja. The decree. soch., with. 54.

[29] N.Shastina. Questions of history. 1953, 8, with. 174.

[30] In the same place, with. 172.

[31] L.V.Simonivskaja. The decree. soch., with. 61.

[32] Orthodox Interlocutor. 1886, volume 312.

[33] L.V.Simonivskaja. The decree. soch., with. 60.

[34] Russian Olden time. 1888, with. 7-9.

[35] Orthodox Interlocutor. 1886, 7, with. 316.

To the maintenance of number