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2.2. Process of acculturation albazintsev. Russian orthodox church in a life albazintsev

Having appeared in territory of China albazintsy have entered process of cultural interaction with people occupying it, first of all with hantsami and manchurians. It is meaningful to consider and analyse changes occured to them.

In enough many sources it is spoken, that already in first half XVIII centuries there was a following type Beijing albazintsa: they did not know any craft as, being soldiers, that is exclusive estate, they considered other employment unworthy themselves; albazintsy lived not on means and have shortly grown poor, despite of the big salary reached 15 roubles a month, and other privileges [2, 8; 12, 35-36].

Here is how priest Sergey Borodin in clause " History Albazina and the beginning of the first Russian orthodox mission in China " describes albazintsev:

" Wasteful, borrowed by itself and the nobleness, not knowing than to get rid of a free time weighed above it and the intolerable boredom, constantly walking the streets, to hotels and the theatres, the opium smoked sometimes sick of soul and a body, it has soon come to be in irredeemable debts at capital usurers, becoming eventually a parable in jazytsah " [3, 8].

And so harakterezuet a situation the chief of the tenth Russian Spiritual Mission in China, archimandrite Peter Kamensky:

" Their Kinds mutual vsepomoshchestvovany, their mutual and general gifts for new year, their weddings and funeral, almost in the affirmative it is possible to tell, the richest in the third knee always transformed into beggars [1, 103-104].

About family albazinskogo foremen Paul Ivanov archimandrite Peter writes:

" Receiving with three sons in a month 13 lan and full provianty, it could even be rich, but together that in many thousand roubles in a duty " [1, 105].

Actually, these descriptions speak all that the big cultural influence on descendants albazintsev was rendered by manchurians.

We Shall consider socially-psychological type znamennyh the manchurians lived in Beijing, having used as a material autobiographical novel Lao SHe " Under purple banners ".

Meaning of the life for these people - everyday entertainments. They liked to play gamblings, to plant birds, to go to theatres, to sing. They considered themselves too noble to be engaged what or work. If someone from znamennyh guardsmen has decided to learn craft at it would began to look with contempt. Unique employment of manchurians was service where the main thing for them was skill to exploit and shoot from an onions, thus in second half XIX centuries many of them were not able to do neither that, nor another. Over all was dominated with a principle: if it is possible for nothing to study - means, do not study [7.]

To conduct a similar way of life, properly to look, have a good time, pay the put visits and to observe all necessary ceremonies, significant financial assets which at them, frequently, was less were necessary to them, than it was necessary for them. Therefore manchurians have got used to take in a duty, using military grades. Was considered, that the present manchurian necessarily should take in a duty, not thinking thus when it can give it, and swearing with creditors [7.]

As already it was mentioned above, albazintsam distances of wives kaznennyh criminals. Married albazintsy more often on manchzhurkah [12, 34-35].

New related communications, and also an accessory to military estate, strengthened process of acculturation albazintsev in the new environment and order to change of a way of life. On the other hand, it is not necessary to forget about that, as manchurians at this time influencing Chinese (hanskoj) cultures.

Now it is necessary to mention a theme as there was an interaction of Russian orthodox church with albazintsami and its influence on them.

In current XVII-XIX of centuries there was a process of penetration into China and fastenings there Russian Orthodox church. On the one hand, precisely owing to arrival to China albazintsev, there there are first Christian priests and then, from the sanction tsinskogo emperor, Spiritual Mission. On the other hand, owing to work of priests, there is a preservation albazinskoj communities as orthodox.

Distribution and preservation of Orthodoxy during all time came to collision with process of acculturation albazintsev in a new society and influences of the Chinese and manchurian culture on albazintsev. In this connection, always existed albazintsy, supporting close communication with orthodox church (and this communication did not interrupt never, despite of long term and all events of history) and those who has departed from christianity.

As father Maxim did not have special assistants, a duty of readers and singers, and also church heads executed albazintsy. Father Maxim continued the vicarial activity to the most death (in 1711 or to 1712) [17, 102].

After Russia has acquired the right to have in China for albazintsev constant church, it began to send to Beijing spiritual missions, led by archimandrites. The first chief of the first Russian Spiritual mission in China was archimandrite Illarion Lezhajsky, the prior Yakut Spasskogo a monastery, arrived in Beijing on April, 12th, 1716 [17, 102].

In the further work of Orthodox church with albazintsami develops as follows:

protoirej About. The item Christmas in clause " in China and special character of its activity " speaks Problems of orthodox activity, that " during the fourth Mission the condition of flock was very sad and pitiable, the Chinese beliefs all influenced descendants of the Russian which have been brought up in the Chinese environment more strongly. The Orthodox church did not have not enough forces. Living conditions were especially heavy. With 1758 on 1762 it has not been sent at all salaries; the most part of members of the fifth Mission has died in China. During the fifth Mission at church was fifty albazintsev and all of them were kreshcheny. For seventeen years of the stay in mission archimandrite Amvrosy has christened about two hundred twenty person " [15, 54].

In the same source it again mentions work of mission with albazintsami: " The chief of the tenth Mission archimandrite Peter has paid attention on orthodox albazintsev, is strong okitaizirovavyhsja and grown cold to Orthodoxy. It has involved with the tender reference, advice and belief and especially wide charity them in church. Its example was followed also by its assistant ieromonah Veniamin christened about hundred person. In Russian one hundred the school has been opened and at it a board for ten children. The teacher of school about eight years father Veniamin consisted. Departed from belief albazintsy came back in church, thus it has been attached fifty three persons. <?> during the twelfth Mission ieromonahom Guriem the chorus from albazinskih children trained at missionary school is arranged. Under the report of the thirteenth Mission in 1850 albazintsev was about hundred person, from them ten pupils. Since the fourteenth Mission, with opening albazinskoj schools, the Beijing Spiritual Mission transfers the missionary activity outside of Beijing. The Highest concerns to this time pozhalovanie two thousand roubles on female school in Beijing. At the fifteenth Mission the school for boys has been opened. <?> during management of the sixteenth Mission of archimandrite Flavianom divine service was made in the Chinese language, have been translated into the Chinese language and spiritually-moral books. There were two schools, one for the boys, fifteen person, and for the girls, thirty person. Ieromonah Nikolay (Adoratsky) has made two choruses of children. On the right choir sang on-neaayinee, and on left on-eeoaenee " [15, 55].

It is known, that in the instruction, the eleventh Mission given to members, they were recommended to turn into Orthodoxy albazintsev, and also to bring up at mission some boys from families albazintsev that then they could become preachers of orthodox belief in China [10.]

Above mentioned facts show All, that during all time of existence of Russian Spiritual mission in China, its employees paid significant attention to work with albazintsami and to preservation at them orthodox belief.

Now it is necessary to return to consideration of a question as the new cultural environment has affected on albazintsev. Still earlier, speaking about the changes occured with albazintsami, the term acculturation, instead of assimilation as, despite of long term of stay of descendants albazintsev in China, they till now have kept some characteristic features of Russian culture has been used.

If to use the system of four types of acculturation offered by John Berri in which each type depends on relative importance of initial culture and culture with which come into contact, acculturation albazintsev can be carried to the first type at which " the contact culture ", as a result, in a greater degree influences the people, exposed to process of acculturation [21.]

In due course for albazintsev the Chinese culture, however elements of Russian culture became prepotent were kept and besides as well as should be at acculturation, rendered some influence not only on albazintsev, but also on members of their families, not being their blood relatives, that is on representatives of " contact culture ".

That many albazintsy adhered to orthodox belief always was one of the most significant displays in them of Russian culture. On the other hand and Orthodoxy at albazintsev has influenced the Chinese culture.

This influence starts to be shown already through very short term pozhivanija albazintsev in China. So priest Sergey Borodin in clause " History Albazina and the beginning of the first Russian orthodox mission in China " writes:

" Manuals of father Maxim were not always capable to protect albazintsev from pagan influence. Besides, and its children were not alien some superstitions Chinese jazychestva " [3, 9].

Century of Item of Peters also mentions, that soon albazinytsy under influence of manchurian wives began to mix orthodox ceremonies with idolatry, and that in the further in some families of an icon and crosses were esteemed not so much as symbols of Christian religion, and as fetishi idolatries [12, 35].

We Shall result the description of one of albazinskih the families, given by archimandrite Peter in 1831:

" Albazinets Athanasius, sword belts-ensigns, the person rich and in the same measure proud. In the house has the sacred icons left from ancestors, but celebrates them on a ceremony pagan, putting before them victims. I much supplied with its Christian books, but not polzujut " [1, 105].

In all these cases it is a question, first of all, of influence on Orthodoxy of the Chinese folk beliefs.

Gao SHinin, the professor of a scientific research institute of world religions of a public academy of sciences of China, speaks about significant influence of folk beliefs on christianity:

" Being the most widespread phenomenon in a usual life of the big weight of the Chinese population, folk beliefs long since became one of components of traditional Chinese culture. Therefore during distribution of christianity to China it inevitably was exposed to the most various and complex influence of folk beliefs " [22, 190].

Also it, resulting in comparison interaction of folk beliefs and traditional Chinese religions, speaks, that all of them used some of folk beliefs to stimulate the distribution, and, on the other hand, folk beliefs absorbed in themselves ideas and representations daosizma, the Buddhism, konfutsianstva [22, 191].

Besides it writes that many scientists consider that the religious consciousness at Chineses is poorly expressed. Namely: Chineses give a close attention to the real world, they consider attitudes with spirits as attitudes between people, and do not put them above; unlike Europeans, they have not given religion a leading position [22, 190].

One of the important characteristics of the Chinese folk beliefs is nuzhnost, a practicality. Interaction of spirits and people occurs at a level: " we shall pray to you and we shall make a sacrifice, and you make that is necessary to us " [22.]

It is possible to result such enough bright example of that the part albazitsev addressed to Orthodoxy, proceeding, mainly, from the pragmatical purposes:

" Albazinets Varnava, long prayed pred ikonoju for that its son has received the full salary of the Guards soldier. The god did not need to hear such pray, and Varnava, only has heard, that to the son is given up in the salary, has seized a knife and has chopped up an icon in fine pieces " [10.]

It is not necessary to forget also, that one of the main characteristics of traditional Chinese culture are an openness, the tolerance and ability to enter synthesis with the new phenomena. As a result of similar qualities in China there was a system at which konfutsianstvo, daosizm, the Buddhism, and also elements of folk beliefs can be combined in a life and supplement each other. Thus, that display, that priests named idolatry, superstitions and jazychestvom is that other, as aspiration of the Chinese culture to synthesis typical for it old with new. For the Chinese worship various deities and thus belief in the Christ at all do not stir each other.

Now we shall consider a following question: under what influence of factors albazintsy were kept in China as a separate generality of people, instead of have been completely assimilated.

It is obvious, that it was promoted by some factors. One of them is a work of Russian orthodox church with albazintsami. The second important factor, especially during the first period of time, was compactness of residing albazintsev, and also their constant contacts to Russian.

Besides preservation of special self-identification was promoted also by some features of traditional Chinese culture.

In China always the cult of ancestors had great value.

Showers of ancestors were defenders of a sort, and the care of them was business of descendants [8.]

Gao SHinin writes, that " for people worship the sky on the importance cannot be compared to a ceremony of a gift of victims to ancestors " [22]

Related communications in China also always were of great importance.

The Members of different families having the general ancestors, it is traditional in China supported close communications: paid on a regular basis each other visits, rendered material aid, observed mourning on usopshim to relatives, in common celebrated New year and so on.

For comparison it is possible to notice also, that, at least, now, the majority of Russian knows the ancestors only up to the fourth knee.

Thus, it is possible to tell with confidence, as the cult of ancestors and value of related communications in China are one of the important factors of preservation albazintsev as groups, at which dominating the Chinese culture is, but elements Russian are kept.

In a generality albazintsev there was also one more of elements of the Chinese culture, connected with family attitudes. Adherence to Orthodoxy and idea of comprehension of by descendants of Russian were transferred among albazintsev mainly on a man's line. The girl, according to the Chinese traditions, could not continue a sort as it should marry, and after wedding it left the family and submitted to laws of family of the husband. Therefore usually girls did not devote in secrets of family craft and so on [8, 543].

And if to speak about today actually everyone who consider itself albazintsami, carry Russian surnames and refuse to recognize as the presents albazintsami those who conducts the sort on a female line. Besides daughters know about history albazintsev a little, and their fathers do not talk to them about it how with sons.