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2.1. Arrival albazintsev to China

As already it has been specified above, at delivery Albazina in 1685 a part of defenders of this city, among twenty five (or forty five [3, 7]) the person, with several women and children, it has been allocated to Beijing. It is known, that in the chapter albazintsev, passed in citizenship to the Chinese emperor, there was their foreman, named Vasily [17,96.]

Historic facts show, that it was not the first group of the Russian which have lodged China.

In the book " Albazintsy in China " Century of Item of Peters, referring to the Chinese source " Pindin locha fanljue " (平定罗刹方略) in which Caen Si in 1682 is told about a campaign of army, writes:

" Summing up this military campaign described in the specified Chinese source, Chineses have been grasped or send to them voluntary: one cossack in 1649, by name And-fan (Ivan) with several partners, in 1668 33 persons, ?e-whether-to-whether led by (Grigory) about the river Sungari, and at last 72 persons have been grasped per 1684-85 in Albazine and other settlements on the Cupid, from which twelve it was authorized to return. In total to Beijing it has been brought about hundred Russian "lo-?a" [3] " [12, 18-20].

Thus, this group of cossacks, has appeared a cell of other group of the Russian which were voluntary come over to the Chinese party, and also captured, grasped earlier which have received in history the general name "albazintsev" in China [12, 16].

Here what data (Ivan Dubinin) results in clause Du Likun: " During a way of Russian voennoplennyh to Beijing the part of people has died on road of illnesses, the part of people has been repatriated and has returned to Russia. By the moment of arrival in Beijing there was only ten with superfluous a person. In total there were seven families of cossacks: 罗 lo (罗曼诺夫 Romanov), 何 He (哈巴洛夫 Habarov), 姚 JAo (雅克甫列夫 JAkovlev), 杜 Du (杜比宁 Dubinin), 贺 He (赫洛斯托夫 Holostov). Surnames of two others are unknown, as these families have not left descendants " [23, 194].

In the end of 1685 albazintsy have arrived to Beijing and have been well accepted by the Chinese emperor. Kansi has lodged them in the Beijing, on the so-called natural boundary Berestovom located in a northeast corner of capital, at the most city wall [3, 7-8].

Albazintsy have been ranked as hereditary military estate.

"Znamennye" four traditional Chinese estates (such as scientists, farmers, handicraftsmen and dealers) and conceding only to the exclusive nobility - to relatives of emperor and owners of titles [19, 14-16] were the ruling hereditary estate borrowing higher position in social structure, than.

The Main support of authority of a manchurian dynasty was army, therefore for the soldier very good conditions of a life have been created. To military estate state apartments relied, and each private soldier received monthly three ljana silver (five with superfluous Russian roubles) and twenty two bags of rice in a year that made up to hundred ten poods annually. Teenagers from soldier's families, from ten till fifteen years, received half of soldier's salary, that is one and a half ljan in month and a part of a rice ration. Besides the government gave out to soldiers a lump sum: in case of wedding - twenty roubles, on the occasion of death of the father or mother - twenty five roubles. At last, the new dynasty has presented znamennym knjazjam, to officers and soldiers in eternal hereditary possession sites of arable lands about capital. The welcome grounds have been for ever released from the tax in treasury. To prevent loss of these grounds the law which strictly forbade to owners to sell has been entered, and to Chineses to buy such grounds. In case of its infringement and the seller, and the buyer were sudimy, and the sold ground, together with the money received for it, were selected in treasury [9.]

To the Russian which have arrived to China, undoubtedly, the great honor as they were a part of a Guards part yellow with kajmoj a banner which was considered as the most aristocratic has been rendered and replenished exclusively from numbers of the best and true manchurian youth. Chineses in this part were not accepted [12, 35-36].

Albazintsy have been written down in " Russian to a mouth " yellow with kajmoj a banner of imperial guards - in mouth Gudej, organized in 1649 from captured Russian. The hereditary chief of this mouths were former Russian citizen Anany Uruslanov, the Tatar, the deserter. It called on-iaiu??o?nee Ulangeri. Level with other soldiers, albazintsy have received state apartments, money for initial arrangement, monetary rations and the maintenance rice, and as plots of an arable land and territory for a cemetery which was outside of city behind a northeast tower. Except for that it of a distance of wives kaznennyh criminals [17,99; 3,8; 16; 9].

There Is a legend, that albazintsy have soon taken part in one campaign of manchurians against the western Mongols. Probably, that with them also there was and albazinsky a priest father Maxim Leontev [1, 100].

Russian, leaving to China, have taken with themselves a part of church utensils and an image of Prelate Nikolay Mirlikijskogo. This icon has been written on the dressed leather and from generation to generation esteemed albazintsami as an ancient relic (only in 1956 the chapter of Episcopal advice headed the Beijing Spiritual Mission the Patriarchal ekzarh lord Victor has taken away it in the USSR). They also have violently withdrawn to Beijing with the wife and the son of already elderly priest Maxim Leonteva-Tolstuhova (马克西姆・列昂提也夫 [23, 194]) [17,99; 16].

It is known, that during first time at albazintsev there was no church, and they went through all Internal city to a Catholic Southern cathedral. Soon emperor Kansi, has transferred them the Mongolian temple which is being Beijing inside of gate Dunchzhimen in lane Hutszjatsjuan. By 1667 it has been reconstructed in a chapel in the name of Sacred Sofia, and in it divine services began to be spent. This chapel Russian usually named Nikolskoj by name was in it taken out of Albazina to an icon, and Chineses - "Lochamjao", putting in this word sense " Russian chapel " [16; 23, 194-195].

[3] " " Locha " - so " the malicious demon " sounds on-eeoaenee borrowed of Buddhist texts on a Sanskrit " raksha ", in translation meaning. The history of occurrence of its this name is those: during the ?onnei-Chinese collisions the Chinese imperial court yard has sent for trial of officials, those have tried to agree with cossacks in an amicable way, but in the answer have heard such insults to address of the Son of the sky, that since then named them precisely a swear word " locha " " [16.]