Chapter 1. Russia Moves East. The Fall of Albazin

This chapter will give a brief overview of the historical events that led to the appearance of the so-called Albazians in China. It will also consider the following questions: why the Albazins were offered Manchurian nationality and why they accepted it.

Although the two great powers of Russia and China shared borders in the 17th century, there were large swathes of territory that belonged to neither party . These area were populated by the Evenka, Daur, Dyucher, Nanaits, Solon, and other small tribal peoples. Chinese and Manchurian forces collected tribute in the form of furs from this region. Starting in the early 17th century Russian Cossacks started carrying out expeditions here [20].

In 1651, Erofey Khabarov founded the first fort on the Amur River, not far from where it joined the Shilka and Argun Rivers where a small Daur town was located by the name of Albazino. The town was named in honor of Prince Albaz of the Daur. [12, 9-10]

During the Qing Dynasty the Chinese knew this place as Yǎkēsà 雅科萨, and the Russian - Albazino 阿拉巴金 [23, 193].

English Machine Translation follows

In book Du Likun results these hieroglyphs though now usually 阿尔巴金.

Activity of Russian cossacks in a river basin the Cupid has coincided with an establishment in China new TSinskoj the dynasty which have left Manchuria of which had at that time no time for cossacks somewhere in the north as it was necessary for it to strengthen the authority in all China. TSinskaja the dynasty of manchurians has been established in China in 1644. But only during board of the second emperor of this dynasty Caen Si, reigned with 1661 for 1722, China began to undertake vigorous measures to banish Russian from the Cupid [12, 12].

It is necessary to tell, that in most cases courageous attempts of Russian in promotion on the new grounds were made without the knowledge of Russian state and if the Russian government and knew about similar activity of courageous pioneers, it or concerned to it disapprovingly, or winked, depending on circumstances. Russia did not wish to get involved in the Far East in adventures because of its weak positions in this region [12, 13].

By then, when emperor Caen Si has decided to take serious measures against Albazina, in 1682, this jail-fortress became large enough center of Russian influence on the Cupid and for thirty years of the existence has turned from wild Amur "sechi" Cossack volnitsy in poluofitsialnyj the garrison small town had "voevodu" Alexey Tolbuzina. The Siberian administration still formally did not admit the fact of penetration of cossacks on the Cupid, but, nevertheless, has sent there the voevodu [12, 14].

Emperor Caen Si in 1682 has sent the letter voevode to Alexey Tolbuzinu in Albazin with the requirement that cossacks immediately send away from the Cupid. Neither on this letter, nor on repeated orders bogdyhana, Tolbuzin did not answer. As a result emperor Caen Si has made a decision in 1684 to organize greater military expedition against Albazina [12, 14-15].

The Group person has been sent by number of five thousand on courts on the river Sungari on the Cupid for attack Albazina from the river. These armies could approach to it only in the summer of 1685, and with June, 12th has begun hardened osada fortresses. Defenders Albazina, led by voevodoj Tolbuzinym was only four hundred fifty the person. Forces were unequal and, eventually, on June, 22nd the garrison of a fortress suffered from bombardments and epidemics, has been compelled to stop resistance [12, 15].

Inhabitants Albazina, led by priest Maxim Leontevym Tolstuhovym, have persuaded voevodu Tolbuzina to begin negotiations with Chineses about delivery of city. It has agreed on negotiations, but with a condition, that it will be authorized to defenders Albazina to leave to Nerchinsk [17, 94].

On June, 26th, 1685 Albazin has been handed over to Chineses. Chineses have let out from a fortress all garrison and inhabitants. Being afraid of charge in the begun war, especially if it will take an adverse turn, Kansi has ordered to address with Russian as it is possible more softly, to not put to them any harm, and to offer or return to Yakutsk and Nerchinsk, or to pass to it in citizenship [17, 94; 2,7].

Voevoda Tolbuzin with cossacks and peasants has left from Albazina and has directed to Nerchinsk, not having with itself of any stocks of provisions. On road they ate korenjami and berries. Chineses saw off them on distance about two hundred versts [17, 94; 2,7].

At delivery Albazina, Chineses have proposed defenders of a fortress to pass in citizenship to bogdyhanu. To this offer has responded only twenty five person [2], which have been then withdrawn to China and lodged in Beijing [17, 94].

Du Likun (Ivan Dubinin) on another describes this situation, and in its clause is not mentioned the offer to pass to service to the Chinese emperor, and is spoken that Russian have been simply withdrawn to China:

" As a result JAksskoj wars it has been captured a lot of Russian, many Russian have voluntary surrendered in captivity TSinskoj of army. According to tsinskim to governmental decrees of that time, Russian voennoplennye should be convoyed to Beijing for expectation of the further order of emperor Kansi " [23, 194].

Now we shall try to understand, why Russian have suggested to pass in manchurian citizenship and why a part of defenders of fortress Albazin has agreed.

In the book " Albazintsy in China " Century of Item of Peters reflects above it, and also sets and not less proved question, " than the Chinese military leaders who are unpunishedly released Russian home after they illegally grasped the Chinese possession were guided? The Destiny captured at that time in general was unenviable, and in particular in the East where a usual method of punishment with, the branch of a head from a trunk " [12 was captured, 18].

In relation to Russian voennoplennym Century of Item of Peters sees the Main reason of similar behaviour in complex strategic plans of the Chinese emperor:

" The Explanation to this mercy lays that wise emperor Caen Si, already at that time perfectly knew art which presently became popular under the term of " psychological war ". Knowing, that military operations do not stop cossacks and that they again come back to the ashes, that again caused of the organization of the military expeditions, the costing large sums of money and the big spadework, emperor Caen Si began to operate with other by, way of undermining of spirit of defenders Albazina, and also promises to give it of a condition of good prosperity in China.

Under the order Caen Si, the Russian cossacks grasped before, still up to osady Albazina, have been mercy accepted, sent to Beijing and there are done much good. Before besieging Albazin, it has sent two captured Ivans and Michael Molodogo in Albazin with the letter in which offered albazintsam a refuge in China, perfectly knowing, that of them the prospect of homecoming did not smile to much. With typical east diplomacy, it has not told it in the letter directly, but, having hinted, has written, that: "in case" locha " will find difficult homecoming because of a long way, we are ready to accept those who will express sincere desire to surrender to us; we shall well accept them, we shall renumerate, that each of them can live at us decently " " [12, 18-19].

Other reason can be named a fact of common knowledge, that a manchurian dynasty, knowing ability of subdued people in due course "kitaizirovat" the conquerors and being afraid of loss of political authority, tried to involve in management, and also on military service not hantsev, and representatives of other people, for example Mongols, etc. Thus, the invitation to service of Russian voennoplennyh was twice favourable to manchurian emperor: on the one hand, it could liquidate a part of the opponents on northern border (on its offer the small part of cossacks has agreed only, but it in fact quite could hope that in the further, having learned about advantages which have been given albazintsam in Beijing, and other cossacks will follow to their example), with another - strengthened the positions in the China.

It is necessary to understand the following: why the part of defenders Albazina has agreed to pass to service to emperor of China.

Century of Item of Peters considers, as Caen Si, and the consent albazintsev it is possible to explain the offer of emperor as follows:

" Caen Si perfectly knew, it dealt with what category of people, and to what category of Russian defenders Albazina belonged. Many of them if not the majority, were not in ladah with Russian laws and the authorities, anyhow guilty in something and known, that returning to Russia threatens them with severe punishment " [12, 19].

Certainly, that such explanation looks plausibly enough, and, really, fear of punishment for any crimes accomplished in the past, could become the factor which has affected the decision of some people albazintsev. However, it is possible to recollect, that a part from them, all the same, has preferred to return to Nerchinsk.

It is probable, that in a greater degree for an explanation of their act such quality which Lion Gumilev names passionarnostju approaches.

Passionarnost is the quality pushing people to illusory, instead of the real purposes. Passionarnost it is opposed with an instinct of self-preservation [6, 66].

In L.N.Gumileva's opinion passionarnost in general it is peculiar zemleprohodtsam [6, 68].

Here it is possible to recollect that settling of Siberia by Russian cossacks has occured in very short, to historical measures, terms.

Century of Item of Peters writes, that " similar unknown promotion of Russian cossacks, in the majority was illiterate and nothing known about economic or strategic needs of the growing state, possibly, had a little equal to it. For an example it is possible to specify settling of Northern America by the first European immigrants in this country and their descendants. Has passed almost three hundred years before the American pioneers who have begun gradual promotion from coast of Atlantic ocean on the West, could reach Pacific ocean, having overcome the distance equal to half of what was covered with cossacks in Siberia " [12, 6-7].

Apparently, it is possible to explain this phenomenon strong passionarnym a push. Means, passionarnost, and in a high degree, it was peculiar to those people who have attached to Russia all these territories.

As well as another zemleprohodtsam, to the Russian basing settlements on the Cupid, it was necessary to win these grounds, they constantly collided with dangers and risked a life. This everything, certainly, contradicts an instinct of self-preservation so, is display of its antipode - passionarnosti.

Century of Item of Peters considers, that the main motive powers pushed cossacks on feats are a unquenchable thirst of adventurism, searches of the new grounds, and the main thing - an opportunity of a fast profit [12, 11].

On the other hand, probably, in not a smaller degree over them thirst of freedom, revolt, unwillingness to accept quieter and safe, but conditions of a life holding more down them in the central Russia supervised.

Apparently, that the part of defenders Albazina has agreed to pass to service to the Chinese emperor, in a greater degree has been caused by spirit of adventurism. In fact having surrendered to the enemy and having accepted this invitation, they, certainly, went complex by and risked a life: with enemies frequently act perfidiously, and they could be simply killed, they did not have any guarantees, that in Beijing they will be really well met. Besides that fact is important also, that transition up to Beijing has borrowed much more time, than returning to Nerchinsk, was heavy, and a part of cossacks has died in road. Thus, this act is quite entered in caused passionarnym by a push adventurous behaviour of Russian zemleprohodtsev.

[1] In the Chinese sources we meet other approach: " Russian tsars during of some generations sent on the east forwarding armies for capture of surburbs of our native land, the grounds belonging a province Heilongjiang " [23, 193].

[2] Under other data 45 person [3, 7]