Русский | Chinese Messenger 2/1999
Priest Peter Ivanov
English Machine Translation

The History of Moscow Metoche
of Russian Orthodox Mission in China

The Beginning of XX century has noted been by significant expansion of a field of activity of the Beijing Spiritual Mission, in what a doubtless merit of its chief - preosvjashchennogo Innokentija bishop Pereslavskogo. Testing appreciable shortage of means for an embodiment of plans on distribution of the orthodox sermon on open spaces of China, it began to base farmsteads of mission thus to get additional support to the undertakings. So there were farmsteads in Harbin, Distant, at station Manchuria eeoaenei-east railway, St.-Petersburg and, at last, in Moscow.

It was hard to find to the chief of mission means for purchase of the real estate in Moscow. After long correspondence with the governmental instances it has received the sanction to spend the money made the rest from indemnification, paid by the Chinese government: Over the Synod has received this money " on restoration destroyed during boxing revolt in China of buildings of Mission ". neistrachennaja the part of means at a rate of 200 thousand roubles has been deducted, by definition Over the Synod from October, 16-24th, 1910 (№ 6752) as inviolable fund of the Beijing Spiritual Mission also is put in the ?onnei-Asian bank.

The Synod has permitted to take from fund 97 thousand roubles for registration kupchej on the ground and constructions of the future farmstead in Moscow that the property has immediately been incorporated also money are returned in bank. It was possible to consider it as greater achievement preosvjashchennogo for in a then Russian practice cases when the means intended for needs of Church sometimes went on other purposes were frequent. For example, being jealous about belief, the Russian consul in Fuzhou (prov. Fujian in Southeast China) was collected in the beginning of XX century with 25 thousand rbl. on construction of an orthodox temple in this seaport where vessels of our Far East Voluntary fleet on a regular basis came. After death of the diplomat, the means collected by it so up to representatives of Church also do not send in addition.

Having arrived to Russia in 1913, it is obvious to participation in celebrating the 300 anniversary of board of the House of Romanovs, preosvjashchennyj Innokenty has finished an embodiment of the idea: has based the Moscow farmstead where in the future planiroalos to arrange church, atsditoriju orthodox reading for people and a sobriety society. It was supposed to create here special seminary for the Chineses, calculated on 20 pupils.

Over the Synod on representation of the iaa?-public prosecutor from June, 17th, 1913 (№ 7708) has considered business about purchase by mission of the ground with constructions and the special decree (№ 12080 from August, 1st 1913a.) has given on that sanction. Thus, from the moment of acceptance on March, 6th - on April, 1st, 1908 Synod definition № 1631 about establishment of the Moscow farmstead of the Beijing Spiritual Mission and submission to its metropolitan Moscow and to Kolomna Makariy has passed more than five years. We shall notice also, that the means allocated Over the Synod it has appeared insufficiently, and as archimandrite Avraamy wrote subsequently, one of the most active enthusiasts of orthodox missionary work in China, the part of the capital has been taken " from cash means of mission ". The fact in itself remarkable if to consider, that the annual budget of mission was made only with 32 thousand rbl.

Bishop Innokenty hoped that the Moscow farmstead in due course will be transformed to a small exemplary monastery where Chineses could comprehend trues of orthodox belief. With this purpose it in August, 1913 has made a trip to monasteries of Kiev and Belgorod to collect the brotherhood ready podvizatsja on a farmstead on the basis of a strict hostel. Unfortunately, we do not know about results of this trip. It is possible to tell only, that activity preosvjashchennogo has got support of the former chapter of the Beijing Spiritual Mission, metropolitan Kiev and Galitskogo Flaviana, offered of mission 1 thousand rbl.

The ground Bought by bishop Innokentiem with constructions belonged to noblewoman Agnii Ivanovne Novitskoj (in some papers the real estate was registered for its late spouse Edmundom Lvovichem Novitsky) and settled down at corner pokrovskoj and streets Irininskoj (during Soviet time - Bakuninskaja and Fridriha Engels), on affinity from Gavrikova a lane. The manor had the area 1240 kv. sazhen (2645,6 kv.), consisted of two court yard on which settled down 11 wings contained five shops, 16 apartments and 77 separate rooms, in two of which there was " a factory to the Rose ". On August, 3rd, 1913 here ieromonah Leonid managing the Petersburg farmstead, has consecrated a chapel in the name of Spasa not Man-made.

Creation of the Moscow farmstead passed at the most active participation of one of the most active members of 18-th Beijing Spiritual Mission - archimandrite Avraamija (in the world Vasily Vasilevich Chasovnikov, 1864-1918). It has arrived from Beijing to Moscow that, acting with lectures about missionary activity orthodox in China, to collect means for development of the Chinese orthodox brotherhood and construction in Beijing of a cathedral in the name of the 300 anniversary of the House of Romanovs.

So, acting in Moscow on March, 16th in the Society of fans of spiritually-moral education at presence of Metropolitan Petrograd Vladimir, archimandrite Avraamy specified an imperative need of preparation of missionaries for work in China. It providcheski specified the future inflow of Chineses to Russia and on danger of approach east jazychestva on Orthodoxy.

In the end 1913 has headed the Moscow farmstead ieromonah Dosifej (in world Dimitry Fedorovich of Queens), the native of Moscow begun the monastic way per 1864 by the novice in Nikolo-Oa?aoneii a monastery. In 1873 it was postrizhen in monks, and vskorosti is imposed in ieromonahi then it is translated in Vysokopetrovsky a monastery in Moscow. In the further three years consisted ekonomom the Moscow Spiritual academy. Ieromonah Dosifej has become famous for the remarkable voice: P.I.Chajkovsky recognized as its fourth best tenor of the Europe. Within 27 years about. Dosifej podvizalsja in Chudovo a monastery where was ustavshchikom. In 1901 g.on has passed the treasurer in Znamensky a monastery. Was the gentleman ordeny p Annas of 3 degrees. In 1914 about. Dosifej on unknown persons to us to the reasons has resigned managing a farmstead.

Occurrence of a chapel on a farmstead of mission has soon been noticed, and decent 3 branches Sretenskogo of forty, to the prior Sofia, that on Lubjanke, churches to archpriest Sergiju Sadkovskomu the report from priest Troitskoj, that in Pokrovsk, Alex Pokrovskogo's churches on August, 7th has acted. In it, in particular, it was spoken: " the Chinese seminary for preparation of missionaries to China Will be opened here; it will be constructed while a wooden temple, and in due course - and stone; for now have finished one room - from Pokrovka - under a chapel in which have started to serve since August, 3rd molebny, nightlong vigils and obednitsy... Monks Serve and whether have the right to it - it is not known ". The document has been filed, the course to which has been given in communication with the construction which has developed on a farmstead. Investigation has begun. During it it was found out, that metropolitan Moscow and Kolomna Makariy has given 31 more July, 1913 the instruction (№ 4004) " to resolve organization of a time temple at a farmstead of the Beijing mission ".

Construction has begun in the summer 1914 In a building leaving on street Pokrovskuju, partitions in a ground floor and a scaffold of the second floor have been removed. The size of a chapel made 18 kv. Sazhens (nearby 38 sq.m.), height of 2,5 sazhens (approximately 5,3). As archimandrite Avraamy decent Moscow stavropigialnyh monasteries reported on bishop Evfimiju, architect-archeologist V.M.Borin has recognized construction strong (the certificate from June, 15th, 1914). And here then about. Avraamy on September, 30th, 1914 has addressed to metropolitan with the request to allow to consecrate a temple. According to " Chinese blagovestnika ", the magazine of the Beijing Spiritual Mission published in Beijing, it has been consecrated on October, 18th by archimandrite Avraamiem in sosluzhenii ieromonahov Leonid and Paisija at what sang chorus of Chineses-seminarists. As the basis for opening a temple the resolution № 4668 metropolitans Moscow and Kolomna Makariy of the following maintenance has served: " On October, 11th, 1914 Consecration of the named temple is authorized about Archimandrite Avraamiju for what to give out to it antimins ". The schedule of services has been established: a liturgy at 9 o'clock., vechernja at 17 o'clock., and nightlong vigil - at 18 o'clock. For service in a temple have been put one ieromonah and three choristers - Chineses-seminarists.

The Bureaucratic device long enough understood on what basis Divine services on a farmstead of mission are spent. The problem consisted that naselniki farmsteads could not present the written resolution of lord Makariy. As archimandrite Feodosy informed on August, 10th, 1915 in the Moscow Spiritual consistory decent capital eparchial monasteries, the text of the resolution was taken away with itself to Beijing by bishop Innokenty.

To 1915 on a farmstead already was available a small temple in the name of John Predtechi's Christmas. The exact copy of an ancient icon p John Krestitelja from Nikolo-Iie?ianeiai edinovercheskogo a monastery has been presented by A.I.Novitskoj. In total bogomoltsami it has been offered more than 70 icons of which have made an iconostasis of new church after preliminary reorganization of a building. In the report about. Avraamija about an iconostasis it is spoken a little differently: " an iconostasis of carved work with pozolotoju, in it of all icons three; in the middle nerukotvorennogo Spasa, on each side Bozhija Mothers and Nikolay Chudotvortsa ". Archimandrite wrote also, that " bogomoltsev within day happens enough and sale svech, icons and books of the religious maintenance " is made. The candle income made over 100 roubles a month, from custom-made molebnov - about 40 roubles. The temple was warm, but hardly could, as informed " the Moscow leaf ", to contain 300 praying at so small area.

The Discontent of the Moscow city authorities with building activity of a farmstead has been connected by that the most part of structures were in the started condition, the some people were uninhabited, on the verge of destruction and represented danger to people. The Beijing Spiritual Mission planned these constructions to take down in the further and on their place to erect profitable houses.

Creation of a farmstead in Moscow has been substantially caused by economic reasons. It gave 17200 rbl. of the revenue (at the charge 7479 rbl.), that, undoubtedly, was significant support for the Beijing Spiritual Mission constantly experienced material difficulties and vynuzhdenno constrained missionary work in many provinces because of absence of money. However there was also other reason which has induced bishop Innokentija to open a farmstead in Moscow.

The matter is that in the beginning of XX century at mission the seminary where Chineses-eaoaoecaoi?u were trained has been based. It was required to send them to Russia for reception of more thorough theological formation. In the end of XIX century the chief of 17-th mission - archimandrite Amfilohy (Lutovinov) has asked at Over the Synod the sanction to send pupils of the Beijing orthodox school (seminaries then yet were not) for study in the Irkutsk Theological seminary. Then parents did not dare to release children to far Russia, and then position in the Far East has sharply become complicated in connection with the eeoaenei-Japanese war 1894-1895, cash means of mission were reduced, and the plan has been postponed aside. To idea posylki Chineses-seminarists on training to Moscow have returned already in the beginning of XX century

Bishop Innokenty aspired also to that in Russia as it is possible more widely the missionary movement pursued the purpose of distribution of Orthodoxy in China was developed, for this purpose the missionary society under the name " the Chinese brotherhood " has been founded. Its charter has been transferred to the statement Over the Synod, and by the heavenly patron Martyr Ermogen, the Patriarch Moscow and vseja Russia is selected.

During the first world war in territory of a farmstead the small infirmary for wounded men of soldiers on five koek has been opened.

Item Palamarchuk informs, that the church on a farmstead has been closed in 1920th years. It specifies, that in this area there was a Chinese population, ischeznuvshee only after eviction of the Chinese community from Moscow in the beginning of 1930th years. The materials of the Central state archive of the Moscow area studied by us testify to the following. Down to October revolution the intrachurch administrative status of a farmstead remained not clear. That on vysheupomjanutomu to the decision Over the Synod from 1908 the future farmstead was under authority of the local bishop of metropolitan Makariy testifies to it. At the same time Item Palamarchuk results the instruction of " the Moscow leaf " about submission of church and a farmstead " mosk. To Synod office " Bcy administrative correspondence in occasion of a farmstead went, thus, through eparchial body of church management - the Moscow Spiritual consistory. However, as it is possible to notice, all official reports about. Avraamija have been addressed monastic decent that is why it becomes clear, that the church in the name of John Predtechi's Christmas on Moscow farmstead PDM did not appear in lists of any of Moscow sorokov. The farmstead was probably considered as the Moscow representation Beijing Uspenskogo a monastery.

The Soviet authority not at once has understood, that such PDM and has included its farmstead in not having dates " the List inoslavnyh (Jewish, mohammedan, etc.) buildings of a religious cult ". From the documentation of a department of justice of the Moscow advice of working and country deputies appears, that in 1918-1920-o years special efforts have been directed on urgent liquidation of house churches to which also Predtechensky a temple on a farmstead as a matter of fact concerned. To numerous emissaries of a department of justice the mandates stood out, resolved it to finish with churches on own arbitrariness. Nevertheless, the farmstead was possible manage still some time. The document testifies to it... About distribution of wine. On January, 17th, 1921 the circular of People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs " about the time order of distribution of grape wines " according to which it was necessary to each temple on three bottles of wine in a year has been widespread. In the list under № 23 the Church of the Beijing Spiritual Mission, 1-st Lefortovskaja a part, area Basmannyj " appears ".

Time of withdrawal of church values Has come. In the end of April - the beginning of May, 1922 the organized robbery of temples of area of the Moscow which has turned from Basmannogo in Baumansky was spent. By this time the church of a farmstead has already been sealed up. As appeared in made on this occasion on April, 26th the report, "... It is sealed up by a press of the Department of Management of the Moscow Advice of documents oprichine opechatanija churches it has not appeared " (we keep spelling of the original). Obviously it were consequences of activity of one of the uncountable representatives who are commited excesses in city. On May, 5th and 6 from a temple named by the illiterate clerk " Spiritual mission of the Beijing farmstead ", and in other place " Sacred John Predtechi Beijingskogo's of church of a farmstead of Spiritual mission ", had been withdrew 29 pounds 73 zolotniks (about 12 kg 200) silver and " one natelnyj a gold cross ". Silver subjects was 39: 18 various salaries from icons, 5 nimbuses since images, 9 natelnyh crosses, 2 icon lamps and a set of sacred vessels - a bowl, daronositsa, "diskus", zvezditsa, lzhitsa. Witnesses from the affected party became priest Alex Efims and the representative of house committee Ivan Leontev. Plundered - the representative of the regional commission Simonov and the deputy chief of a regional police station Yashin.

Since then in Predtechensky a temple any more Divine services, probably, were not made. In the beginning 1923 of a building of a farmstead have been given under a warehouse of property of liquidated house churches.

In 1978 the part of a building on pokrovskoj (Bakuninskoj) to street № 30 where there was a church has been taken down, and to 1990 on a place of a farmstead was formed waste ground. The Moscow farmstead of the Beijing Spiritual Mission has divided destiny of many temples and monasteries of Russia, podvergshihsja to defilement and destruction. After several decades Beijing Spiritual Mission has been destroyed also. There has nowadays come time of revival of Orthodoxy both in Russia, and in China. Probably, revived Moscow farmstead of mission can help to develop the orthodox sermon among Chineses.

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