Русский | Orthodoxy in the Far East | October 12, 2006
English Machine Translation
Orthodox mission in the Far East today and a problem of drawing up of the theological Russian-Chinese dictionary
Archpriest Peter Ivanov, Institute of Oriental studies of the Russian Academy of Science, the assistant Operating the Moscow diocese on церковно-public questions

Having gathered(Been going) these days for discussion sudeb christianities in the Far East and reflecting on the Chinese aspect of a question, we, orthodox, not only turn the sight into the past to understand for ourselves scales and value of activity of the Russian missionaries in China, Korea and Japan, but also we turn the look into the future. Already it is now clear, that the turn of demographic and migratory processes in foreseeable prospect will put Russian Orthodox Church before necessity of realization of educational mission among Chineses, huge on scope, unprecedented on circumstances of realization and under the responsibility of costing(standing) problems(tasks).

In this context we appear first of all before the person(face) of two problems: shortages of the staff and absence of a necessary working missionary scientifically-theological material. For overcoming both problems time is required, it is a lot of means and human efforts. As to preparation of clerics and the missionaries knowing the Chinese language and burning with the desire to educate the Chineses who have moved to Russia this problem(task) is not represented to me impracticable. The question is in sphere of the competence of Educational Committee of the Moscow Patriarchy and Preosvyashchennykh arkhipastyrej which can adjust educational process in the dioceses. In an ideal to this work could be connected and theological faculties. Much more complex(difficult) the course of formation of methodology of missionary work and development of materials necessary for it(this) sees.

I wish to concentrate your attention to urgencies of creation by orthodox divinity of the Chinese language. To me can object, that it has already been made by our missionaries in XIX the beginning of XX century. Really, we have both translations(transfers) of the New testament, and divine service texts, in particular Oktoikhom and services dvunadesyatykh holidays, catechisms, diurnals and breviaries, etc., etc. Moreover, the orthodox lexicon is perfectly reflected in the dictionary of bishop Innokentiya (Figurovskogo) which, with surprise it is necessary to ascertain, at present hobby for reprints, unfortunately, till now not pereizdan. But, first, composers of these translations(transfers) and the dictionary meant the Chinese believers a minimum of century prescription. Presently to use these texts it is possible to assimilate attempts partly to attempts to be engaged with Russian children Bases of Orthodox culture on Ostromirovu to the Gospel. Secondly, orthodox theological terminology of the past suffers two lacks: it(she) is not unified, inconsistent, in addition in some cases shows attempt kalkirovat церковно-slavic word-combinations on the Chinese language. The listed circumstances are represented sufficient to leave in the party(side) of attempt of universal distribution of old translations(transfers) and to borrow(occupy), first of all, in creation of the modern new Russian-Chinese orthodox theological dictionary adequate to problems(tasks), facing to our Church, and considering world(global) Christian experience of translational activity.

Decades of persecutions have interrupted missionary works orthodox in China. But both Catholics, and Protestants, to beginning XX of a century saved up(saved) a huge operational experience, for a minute did not stop the works, even in Hong Kong and on Taiwan, leaning(basing) not only on numerous and constantly updated the staff, but also on generous financial support of various religious funds and the governments of the western countries.

In the given brief message it is not obviously possible to tell about that really a vast abundance of a different sort of Christian directories and encyclopedias which exist now. For the general(common) illustration I shall tell only about the cores.

Preliminary I wish to make a reservation, that would not like to be suspected that I suggest to use mechanically made by representatives of other faiths. It is simply impossible. I shall explain why. Besides the Chinese theological terminology initially strictly shared on Catholic and Protestant, in the Protestant environment also there was at different historical stages a set of disagreements concerning a designation of the major concepts of dogma. As a result we are witnesses of deficiency of terminological unity. Our compatriots in due time tried to ignore this fact, borrowing lexicon that of one, from other source. I in due time could write about it(this). It is thought, it is necessary to go on other way. On the one hand, borrowing, with another, after careful selection forming the lexicon of the major terms, and leaning(basing) on a domestic heritage, and spending independent translational work.

Now we shall address to the brief bibliographic review of dictionaries and directories which I wish to offer you.

Certainly, all began with translation(transfer) of the western books into the Chinese language. We shall take for example the Bible dictionary (聖經辭典 , 臺北 , 歸主出版社 , 1996, 957 p.), which author is James Gastings (1852 1922), Scottish presviteriansky the pastor who has made set of encyclopedias and directories. The given dictionary has appeared in the Chinese language in the beginning of a century and continues to be republished till now.

Translational work such proceeds and nowadays. An example to that the Evangelical dictionary of bible divinity in two volumes, translated(transferred) from English language in Hong Kong (證主聖經神學辭典。 上下。 香港 , 福音證主協會 , 2001, 1235 p.). It is the book is available and in Russian: the Evangelical dictionary of bible divinity . Under red. Uoltera Eluella. SPb., the bible for everything, 2000. Initially it(she) has been published in the USA by evangelic publishing house Baker Book House.

Are translated into the Chinese language and many special directories. So, to the missionary the Theological dictionary of the Old testament (舊約神學辭典。 臺北 , 中華福音神學院出版社 , 1995, 1264 p.) can be rather useful. In the original this book is published in the USA by evangelic Bible institute Mudi in Chicago (R.Laird Harris, Gleason L. Archer, Jr., Bruce K.Waltke. Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament). Here in the Chinese language translations(transfers) and comments to all words of the Jewish Bible located by way of numbering Stronga are given.

However the dictionaries made by independently Chinese authors take place also. For example, the Англо-Chinese dictionary of theological terms (漢英神學名詞辭典。 趙中輝著。 臺北 , 基督教改革宗翻譯社 , 2001, 746 p.), made by the teacher of the Chinese evangelic seminary in Taipei, known Protestant pastor Chzhao Chzhunkhueem.

From editions of last years it is necessary to mention a little. Protestant authors led by the dean of theological faculty of the Hong Kong Chinese university metodistskim pastor Lo Lunguanom make англо-Chinese the Christian библейско-theological dictionary (基督教聖經與神學詞典。 盧龍光主編。 香港 , 漢語聖經協會 , 2003, 780 p.). Though in the foreword, that the book obemlet not only protestantizm, but also Catholicism with Orthodoxy also affirms, however in practice the Protestant bias is obvious.

In the end of 1990th at Catholic university Fuzhen being on Taiwan work above the Chinese directory on Catholic divinity has been completed. The book includes more than 700 clauses(articles) (神學辭典。 臺北 , 光啟出版社 , 1998, 1071 p.).

Remarkable result of the further work in the same direction became occurrence in the past to year the Christian theological иноязычно-Chinese dictionary of terms and personnels (基督宗教外語漢語神學詞語彙編。 臺北 , 光啟文化事業 , 2005, 1170 p.). As well as the previous directory the book has been made by collective of the Chinese authors under direction of about. Gu KHansuna and at financial support of the Austrian jesuits. The new dictionary is remarkable that  as much as possible full reflects a Catholic and Protestant problematics. Orthodoxy is reflected only fragmentary.

Awakening of interest to christianity in the Peoples Republic of China has caused in literal sense a collapse(landslide) of publications in 1990 the beginning of 2000th to name the Dictionary on christianity (基督教词典。北京 , 北京语言学院出版社 , 1994, 799 p.) the directory prepared by employees of Academy of social studies of the Peoples Republic of China enough. The certain interest by way of what priority faces to us today the brief dictionary the Christian lexicon is. Англо-Chinese and Chinese the English directory (基督教词语。英汉汉英对照手冊。 王毓华编著。北京 , 宗教文化出版社 , 1997, 183 p.).

Theological terms have found reflection and in the biggest Russian-Chinese dictionary (the Big Russian-Chinese dictionary. 北京 , 商务印书馆 , 1985, 2737 p.). Though some translations(transfers) it is obviously inexact reflect sense. For example, antimins it is translated as 聖餐布 ( 圣餐布 ), that in a literal sense means liturgijnyj payments and not absolutely adequately reflects applicability and sense antiminsa. By the way, the word antimins in the last the Hong Kong and Taiwan directories in general is not present.

To the address of http: // www.bigyi.net/christDic/christMain.asp it is possible to look, as forces of experts from the Center of studying of christianity Fudanskogo of university in Shanghai goes, the truth, seems not so quickly, development of the big electronic dictionary on christianity. Shy attempt begin(start) work above the orthodox dictionary can to be found out to the address of http: // cs-people.bu.edu/butta1/prologue/terms/.

Brief transfer of a separate reference media and dictionaries on christianity in the Chinese language does not apply at all for exhaustive completeness. Especially it becomes obvious, however(as) huge work should be done by us, orthodox clerics, and also scientists-orientalists and seminary students to create adequate Russian-Chinese dictionaries.

In summary some practical reasons. First, all the editions listed by me are accessible to any interested person. Practical aspects of how these books can be got we we can to discuss in a lobby. Secondly, for drawing up of the dictionary about which there is a speech, the collective of orthodox adherents and enthusiasts is necessary. If we can create it(him), we shall testify(certify) the readiness to educate Chineses light KHristovoj of true.