Русский | East Asia - Saint Petersburg - Europe: mezhtsivilizatsionnye contacts and prospects of economic co-operation " On October, 2-6, 2000 Theses and reports
(Yaroslavl, JAGU)
A religious-legal basis of activity of the Russian spiritual mission in China
(XVIII - the beginning of XX century)

English Machine Translation

The Russian spiritual mission operated in China preemstvenno in XVIII, XIX and XX centuries. Activity of orthodox missionaries was under the special control of Russia and China, was erected in a rank of a state policy, with it interests of the next states communicated. Performance of the following functions was assigned to mission: 1) diplomatic (mission played a role of diplomatic representatives of Russia in China), 2) research (the big successes are connected to activity of members of mission in domestic kitaevedenii), 3) religious-propaganda (activity of mission on distribution of Orthodoxy to China). The spiritual organization appeared the most comprehensible form of mutual attitudes for both parties as allowed to bypass rather delicate questions of the diplomatic ceremonial touching prestige Russian and the states Tsinskogo.

XVIII - the beginning of XX century - the period of administrative-legal registration of the Russian spiritual mission in China, definitions of its basic functions. On time it has coincided with origin and development of the Russian-Chinese attitudes, becoming of a domestic science and the education system connected to it, and also the Synod period in history of Russian orthodox church when last was inkorporirovana in the state system of pre-october Russia.

Legal bases of existence of spiritual mission in China (a site, the status, structure, the maintenance) have been determined by a number of the international contracts of empire Tsinskoj with Russia (Kjahtinsky/1727 / and Tjantszinsky/1858 / contracts). Terms of stay of mission in Beijing, material maintenance, ways of communication with fatherland, subjects of employment of its members have been strictly regulated and was carried out on the basis of the instructions developed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Synod and authorized by emperor after their consideration in the Senate (since 1810 - in the State Advice).

Spiritual character of activity of mission was defined by instructions and orders of the Most holy Synod.

The first instruction (from December, 31, 1734) has been received Ilarionom (Trusovym), the chief of 3-rd spiritual mission. In it the main attention addressed " on the statement in belief of flock " and it was authorized " blagorazsmotritelno to call for piety of Chinese " 1. In 1864 she has been replaced with more detailed.

In 1858 after conclusion Tjantszinskogo of the treatise the Synod has prepared addition to the first instruction. In it it was spoken: "... Activity of Mission can and should be directed to distribution of Orthodox belief among the most Chinese people. But thus Mission is obliged, especially during first time, in the actions to be supervised polnoju ostorozhnostiju and prudence. Using with revnostiju all opening cases for purchase new a smoke of Church... She should make it without noise and with every possible humility... That... To not involve on these suspicious and ill-disposed attention of the local Government and that to not put a barrier the future... To actions " 2.

Eino?oeoey3 (from September, 9-16, 1864 for ? 20230) regulated activity of mission in new conditions of its existence and has consisted of 45 paragraphs. According to item 1, the Beijing spiritual mission acted in the full order of the Synod. The item 2 defined the purposes of mission: " 1) Fulfilment of Divine service in Orthodox tserkvah in Beijing and correction treb; 2) the statement and maintenance of Orthodox belief in the local orthodox society consisting from Albazintsev or descendants of Russian immigrants and from Chinese, accepted Orthodox belief; 3) distribution of this, as far as possible, between the pagan population ". The instruction advised to study in depth the Chinese book language for translation into him of compositions of the spiritual-moral maintenance " in updating and continuation of works of the previous missions " (item 15). The duty was assigned to members of mission to support man's and female schools for children albazintsev and orthodox Chinese in Beijing (item 23-25). Is relative acceptances in orthodox belief wishing to be christened Chinese extra care (item 17-18.) Was recommended

Many paragraphs of the instruction repeated position " About transformation of the Beijing Mission " 4, concerning staffs of mission and its maintenance, with some additions (item 3, 9-11, 14, 19, 23-29). So, for example, the chief of mission was authorized to arrange prayful houses, " and in case of need and an opportunity, and church " (item 6). In conducting mission three churches acted also: church Uspenija of the Mother of God in Northern farmstead, another - in an ambassadorial farmstead - in the name of Sretenja Gospodnja and last in the Chinese village Dundinan (item 11). Activity of preachers could reach now and for limits of Beijing (item 19.)

The item 31 offered the chief of spiritual mission at the decision of serious questions under own discretion to invite members of mission, ieromonahov, on meeting and " to demand their opinion at what the note for obshcheju the signature " is made. On item 34, " all affairs subject to discussion and the decision should be brought in special magazine ". At the end of each year the chief of mission has been obliged to represent the report to the Synod (item 35). The item 36 limited activity of mission by frameworks of the problems put before it: "... Mission should be removed from political or diplomatic intervention and not begin anything passing borders eja purpose ".

The basic methods and principles of activity of members of mission on distribution of orthodox belief to China were defined by the general instruction ienneiia?ai5 which have been made in 1840 and subsequently is corrected by metropolitan Moscow Filaretom.

In a basis of the sermon of Orthodoxy the knowledge of the Chinese language was necessary. In the beginning, " on ignorance ", it was authorized to use the translator " from the most pious and loyal " Chinese. The instruction advised to pay attention that " the way to teach the doctrine of belief happens is various: and on inwardness of soul pouchaemogo, both on age and on mental faculties ". The image of the missionary was treated as follows: veropropovednik should give out itself for the simple wanderer wishing near true well-being, to try to deserve good opinion on (" the kind opinion forces to respect; and whom do not respect, to that and will not listen "), " to get the power of attorney and blagoraspolozhenie... razsuditelnostiju, gotovnostiju on any help kind and a sensible advice and iskrennostiju ", " in explanation of subjects of belief " to speak " is considered, clearly, otchetisto and it is as much as possible brief ". Everyone wishing to accept a christening should know the law and a creed, and also to observe the following conditions: " to renounce the former belief, to not follow customs opposite to christianity, to agree to execute all that will demand from them the new law and Church, ispovedyvat the sins ".

The maximum spiritual heads understood, that Chinese " still long time will not understand that is read in Church ", therefore the instruction recommended to invite them to church services, pronouncing of sermons and prays specially. Besides it was recommended " any marriage unions and the contracts made till a christening to not consider by an obstacle to acceptance of the Sacred Christening, and any... Marriages to not terminate " and " in trial wordly has put to not enter "; as novoobrashchajushchimsja, and recently accepted a christening to not give gifts, " that it could not be... primankoju or an occasion to various shifts " (even at the christening to not give them " neither shirts and nor that, except for daggers "); in relation to pagans to not apply " neither compulsions, nor threats, neither gifts, nor promises... obolshcheny ".

Missionaries should bring results of the activity in special magazines which together with reports were annually represented to the Synod and in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs.

If orders of secular authorities varied according to with changes of foreign policy problems of Russia missionary tactics of orthodox church remained former during two centuries.